measures of disciplinary action imposed upon violators of labor discipline. According to Soviet labor law the following measures may be imposed in accordance with internal labor regulations: a warning, reprimand, severe reprimand, transfer to a lower paid job for a period of up to three months or demotion to a lower post for the same period, and dismissal. For absenteeism without valid reasons, disciplinary penalties may also be imposed in the form of deprivation of the right to receive a rated increase for long service for a period of up to three months, or reduction of the lump payment for long service by up to 25 percent, or dismissal from the job. Legislative acts regulating special types of disciplinary responsibility have established more severe disciplinary penalties. Thus, an official in charge may be demoted to a lower post for a period of up to one year, or a disciplinary penalty may be imposed upon him in the form of dismissal from the post. As a general rule, disciplinary penalties are imposed by the director of the enterprise (institution) as well as by other officials, a list of whom is established by the appropriate ministry (department). Disciplinary penalties are imposed directly upon the discovery of the offense, and, before the penalty is imposed, the person violating labor discipline must be asked to provide an explanation. No disciplinary penalties may be imposed after the expiration of one month from the day of the discovery of the offense or six months from the day the offense was committed. Only one disciplinary penalty may be imposed for each violation of labor discipline. Disciplinary penalties are announced in an order or directive, and the worker concerned must sign the order to acknowledge that he has been notified of the penalty. If, after the expiration of one year from the day of the imposition of the disciplinary penalty, the worker or employee is not subjected to a new disciplinary penalty, it is considered that no disciplinary penalty has been imposed on him. If the worker does not commit a new violation of labor discipline and moreover shows himself to be a good and conscientious worker, the director of the enterprise (institution) may issue an order (directive) removing the disciplinary penalty without waiting for the expiration of one year. Instead of imposing disciplinary penalties upon violators of labor discipline, the director of the enterprise (institution) has a right to transfer the material on the violation to a comrades’ court for a hearing.
V. I. NIKITINSKII