pendentive

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pendentive,

in architecture, a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. The pendentives, which are triangular segments of a sphere, taper to points at the bottom and spread at the top to establish the continuous circular or elliptical base needed for the dome. In masonry the pendentives thus receive the weight of the dome, concentrating it at the four corners where it can be received by the piers beneath. Prior to the pendentive's development, the device of corbeling or the use of the squinchsquinch,
in architecture, a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome.
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 in the corners of a room had been employed. The first attempts at pendentives were made by the Romans, but full achievement of the form was reached only by the Byzantines in Hagia Sophia at Constantinople (6th cent.). Pendentives were commonly used in Renaissance and baroque churches, with a drum often inserted between the dome and pendentives.

Pendentive

The curved triangular surface that results when the top corner of a square space is vaulted so as to provide a circular base for a dome.

Pendentive

 

a curved, triangular feature whose purpose is to enable a circular dome or drum to be supported above a square substructure. The top of the triangle is inverted, filling the space between the arches that join the adjacent pillars of the substructure. The bases of the triangles of the pendentives form a circle and distribute the load of the dome along the perimeter of the arches. Being one of the basic structural elements of Byzantine architecture, pendentives were characteristic of ancient Russian churches. They are also seen in domed buildings of the Renaissance and of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, A. V. Svody i ikh dekor. Moscow, 1938.
Smith, E. The Dome. Princeton, 1950.

pendentive

1. One of a set of curved wall surfaces which form a transition between a dome (or its drum) and the supporting masonry.
2. In medieval architecture and derivatives, one of a set of surfaces vaulted outward from a pier, corbel, or the like.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the hexapteryga (detail) in the pendentives of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
The mosque of 1505-06 has pendentives supporting a dome which are roofed over in a manner very similar to the exterior of the New Sacristy; see Aklanapa, 211-18, pls.
There is another piece called For Beckwourth, which is made of oak slabs, forming a crude shape each side of which is a semicircle, the whole surmounted by a kind of dome on pendentives.
The interior walls, groined vaults, pendentives and the entire barrel vault ceiling including the dome will be replastered prior to the final restoration work.
This was certainly true of one of the pendentives of the Cardinal Virtues (Temperance) in S Carlo ai Catinari, finished by Cozza after the Bolognese painter's departure for Naples in 1630, but Pascoli would have us believe that there were numerous examples of work done under Cozza's direction, some of them retouched by Domenichino himself in person.
Soane modelled his work on the Antique principles of supporting the lantern on pendentives that carry the loads to arches that are themselves based on massive (mainly stone) piers pierced by transverse arches to form aisle-like corridors for the clerks behind the counters.
In explaining why the egg-shaped domes of the Cyprus churches are more durable and resist the destruction of major earthquakes, Papadatos compared the structural integrity of the domes, pendentives and buttress to the modern hi-rise structures and how modern engineering can be improved by the simple application of age-old design concepts.
The Plan of the Columbarium covers an area of ground twelve feet by twelve (12' x 12') and consists of a circular cella within four piers, which carry intersecting arches forming pendentives and completed by a saucer dome On the North side is the entrance; a sliding door of solid stone (10) on which four panels are cut so as to leave a cross in relief upon its face The materials will be brick and flint, as in the church tower, and some Portland Stone.
Domes, squinches, pendentives, fan vaults and cross vaults combine to create a renewed awareness of historical possibilities.
12), replacing the pendentives on the ground floor with a flat ceiling through which a rectangular opening gave onto an arcaded enclosure supporting a glazed lantern.