Penicillium


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Related to Penicillium: Penicillium marneffei

Penicillium

 

a genus of Fungi Imperfecti whose ascigerous stage is classified in the order Plectascales. From the vegetative mycelium of members of the genus Penicillium emerge conidio-phores that branch out into racemules at the apex, where chains of colored, unicellular spores, or conidia, are produced. The genus contains approximately 250 species, which are widely distributed in the soil. Fungi of the genus Penicillium induce spoilage in foodstuffs and take part in the decomposition of plant and animal tissue. As do other species of fungi, they form molds. Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium notatum are used in the preparation of penicillin, while Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti are widely used in cheese-making.

References in periodicals archive ?
1871 England Joseph Lister experimented with the antibacterial action on human tissue of what he called Penicillium glaucium.
Fungi of the genus Penicillium have great potential for the biotechnological production of proteases and other enzymes, and produce mostly alkaline proteases under submerged fermentation conditions.
Studies have elucidated the isolation of different types of fungi with different propagation percentages, where the most toxic fungi produced in grain and seed crops are Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, which produce SM of high risk to human and animal health.
Results: Secondary metabolites of aspergillus were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas those of penicillium showed no significant inhibitory activity (p>0.05).
Ascomycota phyla, such as the Penicillium and Trichoderma genera frequently isolated in the present study, are not as important in the degradation of lignin as Basidiomycota, although they can produce cellulolytic enzymes and chitinase, being more generalist and abundant than Basidiomycota (Baldrian et al., 2011).
2007): 1) there was lower fungal diversity in wallow soil than proximal soil, 2) a group of fungi (Mortierella spp., Penicillium spp., Mucor spp., and Trichoderma spp.) that function as primary colonizers (i.e., the first to grow on roots) predominates in wallow soil, and 3) the amount of total fungi was highly variable exhibiting no consistent pattern in CFU/g soil between wallow and proximal samples.
Nine isolates showed a high emulsification index (E24 > 40); these belonged to the genera Penicillium (three isolates), Trichoderma (three isolates), and Fusarium (three isolates).
Predominant genera (83%) were filamentous fungi Penicillium (9 isolates) and Aspergillus (6 isolates).
Keywords: Bioleaching, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Organic wastes, Organic acids, Aluminum dissolution.