fracture

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fracture,

breaking of a bone. A simple fracture is one in which there is no contact of the broken bone with the outer air, i.e., the overlying tissues are intact. In a comminuted fracture the bone is splintered. In greenstick fracture (common in children) one side of the bone is fractured and the other side bent. In multiple fracture there is more than one break. A compound fracture is one in which the broken bone is in contact with the air because there is a wound through the skin; the bone may project through the wound. The bones of older people are especially liable to fracture, although no age is exempt. Fractures are caused most often by injury, although certain pathological conditions may predispose a bone to fracture. Osteoporosis, the leaching of calcium from the bone, can cause spontaneous fractures, as can malnutrition and cancer. A person with a fracture should not be moved unless the broken bone has been splinted or otherwise immobilized (see first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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). Proper setting of bones and the application of a cast should be performed by a doctor. X rays aid in the repositioning of the bone as well as in determining the state of healing. Surgery that involves implanting metal pins or screws to join broken bones may be necessary; in certain cases traction devices are used to align bone fragments. Skull and jaw fractures require special treatment.

Fracture

 

(in medicine), a disruption of the anatomical integrity of bone as a result of injury.

Fractures are extremely rare during the intrauterine life of a fetus. Spontaneous fractures involve a history of bone disease, while traumatic fractures do not; the latter type can be either closed or open, depending on whether there is an external wound. Traumatic fractures are further classified as occurring with or without displacement of fragments and as being oblique, transverse, or comminuted. Fractures usually arise because of extreme mechanical stress at the moment of trauma. Chronic fractures, due to slight, prolonged stress, are less common. Half of all fractures occur in the upper extremities, one fourth in the lower extremities, and the total incidence is three to four times greater in men than in women.

The symptoms of fracture are severe local pain, deformation, abnormal mobility, and functional impairment of the extremity. X-ray diagnosis must be used to determine the site of the fracture, the type of displacement of the fragments, and the method of treatment. The destruction of bone and injury to the surrounding soft tissues cause internal bleeding in closed fractures and external bleeding in open ones. Traumatic shock may follow multiple or severe open fractures of large bones.

The integrity and mechanical function of a broken bone are restored as the bone first forms a central callus and then a definitive one. The time required for bones to heal is affected by the presence of other injuries and by the severity of injury to the soft tissues that surround the fracture; other factors are the extent of displacement of the fragments and the victim’s general physical condition.

First aid for fractures calls for immobilization of the fragments in the fracture zone using special splints or improvised materials. In open fractures and traumatic shock, prompt medical attention is required. Severe bleeding from the wound can be arrested with a tourniquet. The bone fragments should be juxtaposed as closely as possible and immobilized throughout the healing period; this is usually effected with a plaster cast or by skeletal traction. Complications of fractures include injury to large blood vessels and nerves, suppuration in the fracture zone, and failure of the fragments to unite; all of these conditions require special treatment.

With age, bones become increasingly fragile, and this explains the high incidence of fractures after slight injury in the elderly. Because of the greater flexibility of their bones, children often suffer subperiosteal fractures, often close to a joint. Fractures in children are mostly treated by juxtaposition of the fragments with application of a plaster cast; less commonly, skeletal traction is used, and surgery as a therapeutic recourse is very rare.

REFERENCES

Kaplan, A. V. Zakrytye povrezhdeniia kostei i sustavov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.
Watson-Jones, R. Perelomy kostei i povrezhdeniia sustavov. Moscow, 1972. (Translated from English.)

V. F. POZHARISKII

fracture

[′frak·shər]
(geology)
A crack, joint, or fault in a rock due to mechanical failure by stress. Also known as rupture.
(medicine)
The breaking of bone, cartilage, or teeth.
(mineralogy)
A break in a mineral other than along a cleavage plane.
(science and technology)
The act, process, or state of being broken.
The surface appearance of a freshly broken material.
The break produced by fracturing.

fracture

1. Med
a. the breaking or cracking of a bone or the tearing of a cartilage
b. the resulting condition
2. Mineralogy
a. the characteristic appearance of the surface of a freshly broken mineral or rock
b. the way in which a mineral or rock naturally breaks
References in periodicals archive ?
Chlosta et al., "Penile fracture: A metaanalysis," Urologia Internationalis, vol.
They gathered data by examining 90 patients who had been diagnosed with penile fractures and subsequently assessed the dangers of different sex positions by analysing the mechanisms of each individual's injury.
Penile fracture: Long-term results of surgical and conservative management.
Penile fracture is associated with--in 1% to 48% of cases.
Complications of penile fracture are penile curvature, erectile dysfunction, pain during intercourse, high-flow priapism, pseudodiverticulum and fistula.[sup.19] Surgical treatment by sub-coronal incision is the standard incision for fracture penis.
However, MRI and cavernosography are mostly recommended to depict discontinuity of the tunica albuginea and diagnose the penile fracture.[sup.6]-[sup.8] The precise diagnosis can be confirmed only after surgical exploration.[sup.5,9] The few reported cases of rupture of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis sometimes imitate a penile fracture; this rupture is thus sometimes called a "false fracture." In such circumstances, confirmatory diagnosis can be achieved through surgical exploration to exclude penile fracture.
In the Middle East, a common cause of penile fracture is self-inflicted injury.[sup.4] This practice of taghaandan occurs when the erect penis is bent or struck to achieve rapid detumescence.[sup.4] The increased risk of penile rupture during tumescence is partially due to the fact that the tunica albuginea stretches and thins when the penis is erect.
We observed a seasonal variation of penile fracture. Its incidence was the lowest in the autumn season.
Penile fracture involves an erect penis and is caused by tearing or cracking the corpora cavernosa.[sup.1] It may be associated with urethra rupture and injury of the dorsal nerve and vessels.
Penile fracture occurs when the erect penis is forcibly bent against resistance leading to a rupture of the corpora cavernosa.[sup.1] A history and clinical examination are the most important tools to diagnose penile fracture.