Penitentiary Systems

Penitentiary Systems

 

in the capitalist countries, a form of punishment for crime that consists in loss of freedom. The first modern penitentiary system appeared in the USA in the 18th century, in Pennsylvania. Called the Pennsylvania system, it was based on a combination of solitary confinement and religious exhortation and eliminated any contact between convicts and the outside. K. Marx described the system as “the isolation of the man and his sons from the outer world, the combination of legal punishment and theological torture” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 203).

In the early 19th century the Auburn system was developed in Auburn, N. Y. Under this system, convicts were to be confined separately only at night, but were required to observe absolute silence in the daytime while working or eating together.

The developed capitalist countries now use the so-called progressive system of incarceration. Under this system, a sentence is divided into several stages, which have different conditions of confinement. These conditions range from more severe to more privileged with respect to such factors as the extent to which immates are confined separately or are permitted meetings with relatives. Changes in the conditions of confinement are entirely at the discretion of the prison administration. First developed in Great Britain in the mid-19th century, this system rejected the extremes of earlier penitentiary systems but preserved many of the characteristics, giving the prison system as a whole externally humane and liberal forms that satisfied the principles of bourgeois democracy. There are several varieties of the progressive system of penal servitude in the capitalist countries, including the English, Irish, and French types. All envision from three to five stages in serving the sentence: solitary confinement, separation of convicts at night, a transitional period when the convicts are permitted to work for hire outside the prison, and finally parole or early release.

A variation of the progressive penitentiary system is the reformatory system. Reformatories are intended for convicted persons aged 16 to 30. For reformatory sentences the court only pronounces the type of punishment but does not specify a precise term. The administration is authorized to keep the inmate in custody until rehabilitation but not longer than the maximum sentence stipulated by law for the particular crime.

Despite its outwardly humane character, the progressive penitentiary system, like the entire capitalist system of criminal punishment, is aimed at diminishing human dignity and does not seek to reeducate convicts and prepare them for life at liberty.

References in periodicals archive ?
All the cited ordinances concern systems, on one hand "penitentiary systems", on another "prison systems", in such a way that the first universalized social classification in these governmental collectives was the division of the incarceration system into 'penitentiary system' and 'prison system'.
Quantitative research already cited is also mistaken, regarding the name of the NPPHC, designating it the Health Care Policy for National Penitentiary System (11).
485/1995 promulgated by the Health Ministry, that instituted an assistance committee for the area of the penitentiary system in the at that time National Department of STD/Aids of the Health Ministry.
The penitentiary institutions of Kyrgyzstan and Turkey agreed to cooperate in the following areas: creation of groups of specialists for study of penitentiary systems in both countries; training of penitentiary workers of Kyrgyzstan in Turkey; assistance in construction of penitentiary institutions.
"I am convinced such decision will strengthen mutually beneficial cooperation between our countries and will produce a positive impact on development of the penitentiary system of Kyrgyzstan," State Penitentiary Service Chairman Sovetbek Arbayev said.
"Assessment from our NATO partners reflects free and democratic elections, very important progress in judicial and penitentiary systems. This document indicates the need for political co-existence and continuation of reforms in priority areas.
"Penitentiary systems are waiting for change: wages for employees of this system will be increased, in-service training will be conducted, prison facilities will be merged to allow prisoners to execute a custodial sentence in the right conditions," said E.
The conference focused on the ongoing process of modernizing penitentiary systems and reforming penal legislation in Central Asian countries.
The participants discussed the humanization and demilitarization of penitentiary systems, re-socialisation of ex-convicts and their re-integration into society, progressive abolition of the death penalty and the application of alternatives to capital punishment.
"I hope the event will help Kazakhstan and other Central Asian states build up transparent, well-administered, rehabilitation-oriented penitentiary systems and legislation."
experience of working with penitentiary systems, preferably within an EU member State;