Penn, Arthur Hiller
Penn, Arthur Hiller,1922–2010, American director, brother of Irving PennPenn, Irving,
1917–2009, American photographer, elder brother of Arthur Penn, b. Plainfield, N.J.; studied Philadelphia Museum School of Industrial Art (now University of the Arts, 1934–38).
..... Click the link for more information. , b. Philadelphia; studied Black Mountain College and the Actors' Studio, Los Angeles. Penn, who often dealt with themes of alienation in American life, began directing dramas for live television during the early 1950s. His Broadway credits include Two for the Seesaw (1958), The Miracle Worker (1959, Tony Award; also dir. 1957 telecast and 1962 film), Toys in the Attic (1960), and Wait until Dark (1966). His first film, The Left-Handed Gun (1958), a psychologically probing study of Billy the Kid, was also an adaptation of a television drama and dealt with a social outsider, a theme which recurs frequently in his other films. Penn's masterpiece, Bonnie and Clyde (1967), is a darkly brilliant study of Depression-era outlaws that combines high drama with comedy, explicit sexual content, social comment, and extreme violence. The film paved the way for such practitioners of the "New American Cinema" of the 1970s as Martin ScorseseScorsese, Martin
, 1942–, American film director; b. Queens, N.Y. A major figure in contemporary cinema, he grew up in Manhattan's Little Italy, attended film school at New York Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. , Francis Ford CoppolaCoppola, Francis Ford
, 1939–, American film director, b. Detroit. Coppola began his career directing low-budget films and working on screenplays for other directors.
..... Click the link for more information. , and Robert AltmanAltman, Robert,
1925–2006, American film director, b. Kansas City, Mo. One of the most original talents in late-20th-century American filmmaking, he created complex, often loosely plotted movies marked by brilliant and often huge ensemble casting, sharply delineated
..... Click the link for more information. . Displaying an offbeat take on several screen genres, his other movies include Micky One (1965), The Chase (1966), Alice's Restaurant (1969), Little Big Man (1970), Night Moves (1975), and The Missouri Breaks (1976). Among his later, less commercially successful films are Four Friends (1981), Dead of Winter (1987), and Inside (1996).
See M. Chaiken and P. Cronin, ed., Arthur Penn: Interviews (2008); L. D. Friedman, ed., Arthur Penn's "Bonnie and Clyde" (2000); studies by R. Wood (1969) and J. S. Zuker (1980).