The group's method for directly measuring the magnetic moment of a particle is based on the fact that a proton in a Penning trap
aligns its spin with the trap's magnetic field.
Called a Penning trap
, it operates at the temperature of 4 degrees Kelvin (452.47 degrees Fahrenheit below zero) and can store single protons and carbon ions.
Drawn from the proceedings of the XXII International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOL2015), held in Singapore in June and July of 2015, the eight papers in this volume discuss quantum walks with neutral atoms in state-dependent optical lattices; the role of muonic atoms in nuclear structure; the development and optimization of Doppler broadening thermometry using acetylene as a molecular target; antiferromagnetism with ultracold atoms; the generation and transfer of stable optical frequencies in optical clocks with trapped ions; precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant by atom interferometry; optical sideband cooling in a Penning trap
; and Bose-Einstein condensation of photons vs.
They found that as particles circled inside the Penning trap
, gravity acted on protons and antiprotons with the same strength, just as Einstein's theory predicts.
To compare (25) and (26) with experiment, consider an ion in a Penning trap
; its motion is effectively a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator .
Developed by Biercuk and colleagues, the device consists of a few dozen beryllium ions in a device called a Penning trap
Because of the symmetry in the Penning trap
's design, [L.sub.end] was approximately equal for all trap lengths that we used.
Ulmer and his team used a device called a Penning trap
to improve on previous magnetic moment measurements for the proton.
To make the mass measurement, the team used a device called a Penning trap
, which employs electric and magnetic fields to confine atoms.
The so-called Paul trap and its cousin, the Penning trap
, play an important role in modern spectroscopy.