hydrate

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hydrate

(hī`drāt), chemical compound that contains water. A common hydrate is the familiar blue vitriol, a crystalline form of cupric sulfatecupric sulfate
or copper (II) sulfate,
chemical compound, CuSO4, taking the form of white rhombohedral crystals or amorphous powder. It decomposes at 650°C; to cupric oxide (CuO).
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. Chemically, it is cupric sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4·5H2O. When a crystal of the substance is formed, five molecules of water (H2O) are combined in the crystal with each molecule of cupric sulfate (CuSO4). This water is called water of crystallization. When cupric sulfate pentahydrate is heated above 150°C; the water of crystallization is driven off and anhydrous cupric sulfate is formed. It has several properties different from the pentahydrate, e.g., color, density, and crystal structure. Glauber's saltGlauber's salt,
common name for sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4·10H2O; it occurs as white or colorless monoclinic crystals. Upon exposure to fairly dry air it effloresces, forming powdery anhydrous sodium sulfate.
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 is sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4·10H2O. Crystals of it readily give up their water of crystallization at ordinary temperatures, forming a powdery coating of the anhydrous salt; this phenomenon (efflorescence) is exhibited by many hydrates. The number of molecules of water present in a given hydrate is fixed. However, some substances form several different hydrates. There are four different hydrates of ferrous sulfate, each with its own unique physical properties. In organic chemistry a compound formed by addition of water to a carbon-carbon double bond is sometimes called a hydrate; it contains a hydroxyl functional group and usually cannot be dehydrated. In commerce a metal hydroxide is sometimes called a hydrate; e.g., calcium hydrate is calcium hydroxide.
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hydrate

[′hī‚drāt]
(chemistry)
A form of a solid compound which has water in the form of H2 O molecules associated with it; for example, anhydrous copper sulfate is a white solid with the formula CuSO4, but when crystallized from water a blue crystalline solid with formula CuSO4·5H2 O results, and the water molecules are an integral part of the crystal.
A crystalline compound resulting from the combination of water and a gas; frequently a constituent of natural gas that is under pressure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hydrate

1. To combine with water or elements of water.
2. Hydrated lime.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hydrate

1. a chemical compound containing water that is chemically combined with a substance and can usually be expelled without changing the constitution of the substance
2. a chemical compound that can dissociate reversibly into water and another compound. For example sulphuric acid (H2SO4) dissociates into sulphur trioxide (SO3) and water (H2O)
3. a chemical compound, such as a carbohydrate, that contains hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the ratio two to one
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
During the surgery, 100 mL of glucose and sodium chloride and cefazolin sodium pentahydrate (60 mg/kg) were infused.
Sn[O.sub.2]: [In.sub.2][O.sub.3] thin films were deposited by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique from aqueous solutions containing tin chloride pentahydrate and indium chloride with molarities (0.1M) as a precursor using compressed air at pressure 1 bar as a carrier gas.
[11] experimented the solar thermal energy storage with sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate as the phase change material which resulted in the accumulation of total heat and production of hot water up to 2.59-3.45 times than a normal conventional solar water heating system.
Bismuth (III) Nitrate Pentahydrate Bi(NO3)3*5H2O: An Inexpensive and Mild Reagent for the Efficient and Clean Oxidation of Thiols to Disulfides, Bulletin of Korean Chemical Society, 24(7): 885
Soil samples were serially diluted and culture were inoculated in 250mL flask containing a isolation medium: pectin 10 g [L.sup.-1], tryptone 3 g [L.sup.-1], yeast Extract 2 g [L.sup.-1], potassium chloride 0.5 g [L.sup.-1], magnesium sulphate heptahydrate 0.5 g [L.sup.-1], manganese sulphate 0.5 g [L.sup.-1], ammonium sulphate 2 g [L.sup.-1], copper sulphate pentahydrate 0.4 g [L.sup.-1], sodium molybdate 0.8 g [L.sup.-1], zinc sulphate 8 g [L.sup.-1], sodium borate 0.04 g [L.sup.-1].
10 mL of 98% concentrated [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] and 1 g of mixed catalyst (copper sulfate pentahydrate: 1:20) were added and the whole mixture was subjected to heating in digestion chamber until the transparent residue contents were obtained (at 400[degrees]C for 1.5 h).
Copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO45H2O), of 98% purity is used.
(2010) reported the formation of BP[O.sub.4] by neutralising phosphoric acid ([H.sub.3]P[O.sub.3]) with ammonia (N[H.sub.3]) solution with the addition of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate ([Na.sub.2][B.sub.4][O.sub.7] x 5[H.sub.2]O) and calcining above 500[degrees]C.
Schools across Canada were provided with materials and instructions this past September and the blue crystals, made from copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, were submitted for national judging in November.