aldehyde

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aldehyde

(ăl`dəhīd) [alcohol + New Lat. dehydrogenatus=dehydrogenated], any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl groupcarbonyl group
, in chemistry, functional group that consists of an oxygen atom joined by a double bond to a carbon atom. The carbon atom is joined to the remainder of the molecule by two single bonds or one double bond.
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, , and in which the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen; the general formula for an aldehyde is RCHO, where R is hydrogen or an alkyl or aryl group. Aldehydes are formed by partial oxidation of primary alcohols and form carboxylic acids when they are further oxidized. The common name for an aldehyde is often derived from the name of the acid it forms; the IUPAC name is usually derived from the name of the alcohol from which it is formed. Low molecular weight aldehydes, e.g., formaldehydeformaldehyde
, HCHO, the simplest aldehyde. It melts at −92°C;, boils at −21°C;, and is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; at STP, it is a flammable, poisonous, colorless gas with a suffocating odor.
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 and acetaldehydeacetaldehyde
or ethanal
, CH3CHO, colorless liquid aldehyde, sometimes simply called aldehyde. It melts at −123°C;, boils at 20.8°C;, and is soluble in water and ethanol.
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, have sharp, unpleasant odors; higher molecular weight aldehydes, e.g., benzaldehydebenzaldehyde
or benzenecarbonal
, C6H5CHO, colorless liquid aldehyde with a characteristic almond odor. It boils at 180°C;, is soluble in ethanol, but is insoluble in water.
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 and furfuralfurfural
or furfuraldehyde
[Lat.,=bran], C4H3OCHO, viscous, colorless liquid that has a pleasant aromatic odor; upon exposure to air it turns dark brown or black. It boils at about 160°C;.
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, have pleasant, often flowery, odors and are found in the essential oilsessential oils,
volatile oils that occur in plants and in general give to the plants their characteristic odors, flavors, or other such properties. Essential oils are found in various parts of the plant body (in the seeds, flowers, bark, or leaves) and are also concentrated in
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 of certain plants. Aldehydes are used for the manufacture of synthetic resins, e.g., bakelite, and for making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes, and other chemicals. Some are used as preservatives and disinfectants.

aldehyde

[′al·də‚hīd]
(organic chemistry)
One of a class of organic compounds containing the CHO radical.

aldehyde

1. any organic compound containing the group -CHO. Aldehydes are oxidized to carboxylic acids and take part in many addition reactions
2. consisting of, containing, or concerned with the group -CHO
References in periodicals archive ?
The alkoxy radicals formed (see reaction 13) have a high tendency to undergo [beta]-scission, thus forming hexanal and pentanal.
The head-space GC-MS data for the Co-EH-catalyzed EL oxidation reaction show that constant hexanal and pentanal formation takes place, a sure sign of [beta]-scission reactions.
Aldehydes (hexanal, pentanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal) and sulfur volatiles mainly dimethyl trisulfide generated during irradiation result in the associated off-odour (Patterson and Stevenson, 1995; Perez-Alvarez et al.
Of the amount of VOCs detected, aldehyde accounted for 36 percent (hexanal > pentanal > octanal), terpene for 40 percent ([alpha]-pinene > [beta]-pinene > borneol), and alkane for 24 percent (heptane > heptadecane > octadecane)
Since pentanal showed the most sensitive response (the steepest slopes) with change of TVOC emissions, it may be used for the prediction of TVOC emissions for practical purposes.
Seven compounds that include pentanal, hexanal, E-2 heptenal, E, 2-octenal, E, 2-nonenal, E, E, 2, 4-decadienal, and benzaldehyde were reportedly formed during the thermal degradation of linoleic acid (C18:2n-2) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) (Elmore et al.
Under certain conditions, unsaturated fatty acids can oxidize to volatile aldehydes such as hexanal and pentanal compounds, which are known to cause odor problems (Risholm-Sundman et al.
RSM-press hexanal and pentanal quadratic model coefficients.
Emissions of small straight-chain aldehydes, such as hexanal, pentanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal, generally exceeded emissions of other compounds and accounted for more than 50 percent of total VOC emissions.