Pentose


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Related to Pentose: pentose phosphate pathway, pentose sugar

pentose

[′pen‚tōs]
(biochemistry)
Any one of a class of carbohydrates containing five atoms of carbon.

Pentose

 

a monosaccharide that contains five carbon atoms per molecule. In nature, pentoses do not occur in the free state but are present in various glycosides and polysaccharides that are commonly found in plants; these include arabinose and xylose. The pentoses ribose and 2-deoxyribose are constituents of nucleic acids. Nucleoside-diphosphate sugars participate in the insertion of arabinose and xylose into complex carbohydrates. Ribose in the form of ribose-5-phosphate, which takes part in the biosynthesis of nucleotides, is formed as an intermediate product in photosynthesis and in the pentose-phosphate cycle. Pentoses are converted by mineral acids into furfurol, a valuable raw material in the chemical industry.

References in periodicals archive ?
Clear-cell RCC cells are endowed with increased activity of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP).
It is especially helpful for discriminating between glucose metabolism through the oxidative and nonoxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway (see sidebar, p.
Acetic acid, furfural and various hexose and pentose sugars arise from reactions involving hemicellulose.
Glucose-6-phosphatase is the substrate for the pentose phosphate pathway, yielding, both reducing power NADH, needed for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.
The product, glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), is the starting compound for glycogen synthesis, for the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway leading to lactate (glycolysis) or pyruvate and entry to the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and for the pentose shunt.
Furfural formation from raw material containing pentosans consists of two steps, the first step involves acid--catalysed hydrolysis, where the pentoses chain are hydrolysed at high temperatures to monomeric pentose in aqueous media [9].
The project goal is to develop and demonstrate an integrated biorefining process which includes the fermentation of both pentose (C5) and glucose sugars (C6).
1) G6PD catalyzes the first oxidation reaction in the pentose phosphate shunt, in which glucose-6-phosphate is dehydrogenated to 6-phosphogluconolactone with the concurrent reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).
Specific topics include parallel Monte Carlo simulation of HIV molecular evolution in response to immune surveillance, differential evolutionary algorithms for in vivo dynamic analysis of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway in E.
Pentose, hexose, deoxyhexose, and other extractable monosaccharides concentrations ([micro]Lg/g soil, [+ or -] s.
The first 24 are the same map of glycogen[right arrow]glucose-6-phosphate[right arrow]pyruvate[right arrow]Krebs cycle with pentose phosphate pathway and fatty acids.
Thiamine diphosphate serves as a coenzyme in the use of glucose, the pentose shunt, and the citric acid cycle.