Pentose


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pentose

[′pen‚tōs]
(biochemistry)
Any one of a class of carbohydrates containing five atoms of carbon.

Pentose

 

a monosaccharide that contains five carbon atoms per molecule. In nature, pentoses do not occur in the free state but are present in various glycosides and polysaccharides that are commonly found in plants; these include arabinose and xylose. The pentoses ribose and 2-deoxyribose are constituents of nucleic acids. Nucleoside-diphosphate sugars participate in the insertion of arabinose and xylose into complex carbohydrates. Ribose in the form of ribose-5-phosphate, which takes part in the biosynthesis of nucleotides, is formed as an intermediate product in photosynthesis and in the pentose-phosphate cycle. Pentoses are converted by mineral acids into furfurol, a valuable raw material in the chemical industry.

References in periodicals archive ?
The present study shows for the first time that high glucose (55 G) was effective in suppressing ROT-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes via five pathways, involving (i) the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), (ii) the glutathione (GSH) pathway, (iii) the SOD and CAT antioxidant systems, and (iv) PI3-K signaling.
Reversible inactivation of D-xylose utilization by D-glucose in the pentose fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus.
Thus, 97% of the theoretical yield was reached in this study for the sugars present in pretreated coconut fiber, but not taking into account the sugars lost in the alkaline pretreatment or the pentose fermented in the enzymatic hydrolysis.
FWGE also inhibits the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDFI), a metabolic enzyme essential for using glucose carbons to make ribose through the pentose phosphate pathway mentioned above.
Abbreviations CPZ: Chlorpromazine PS: Phosphatidylserine AchE: Acetylcholinesterase RBCs: Red blood cells PB3: Band 3 protein Hb: Hemoglobin GEs: Glycolytic enzymes G6P: Glucose-6-phosphate PPP: Pentose phosphate pathway HOS: High-oxygenation state LOS: Low-oxygenation state DNPH: 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine p-NPP: p-Nitrophenylphosphate Met-Hb: Methemoglobin PMSF: Phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium PMS: Phenazine methosulphate t-BHT: tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances OV: Orthovanadate DNP: Dinitrophenyl FACS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting SD: Standard deviation pHi: Cytoplasmic pH.
On hydrolysis, yields a sugar called cerberose--a methyl pentose, C6H12O5.
Biological, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis commonly involves four biologically-mediated transformations: the production of saccharolytic enzymes (cellulases and hemicellulases); the hydrolysis of carbohydrate components present in pretreated biomass to sugars; the fermentation of hexose sugars (glucose mannose, and galactose); and the fermentation of pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose [3, 4].
Hyperproduction of tryptophan by Corynebacterium glutamicum with the modified pentose phosphate pathway.
Energy, stored as ATP, is obtained by anaerobic glycolysis (90%) and pentose cycle (10%).