The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(The Pass), a literary group formed in Moscow late in 1923 at the journal Krasnaia nov’ (Red Virgin Soil).

Pereval’s aesthetic platform crystallized in the late 1920’s. The group’s theorists, D. A. Gorbov and A. Z. Lezhnev, developed several ideas found in A. K. Voronskii’s book The Art of Seeing the World (1928). Voronskii had viewed creativity as a “lifting of veils” and regarded “spontaneous” impressions as the basis of literature; Pereval promulgated the principles of “sincerity” and intuitionism (“Mozarteanism”) in literature. These principles were embodied in the works of M. Barsukov, N. N. Zarudin, and P. V. Sletov and partially in the writings of I. I. Kataev, one of the group’s most important writers.

The idealistic tendencies in Pereval’s theory and practice reflected the ideological instability of some intellectual circles of the 1920’s. At the same time, these tendencies were a reaction against the oversimplifications and distortions of the members of RAPP (Russian Association of Proletarian Writers) and the “rationalism” of LEF (Left Front of the Arts) and of the con-structivists. Sharp criticism of Pereval, intensified early in the 1930’s, caused the group’s gradual disbandment. Among the writers who left were M. M. Prishvin, E. G. Bagritskii, and P. A. Pavlenko. After the enactment of the decree of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) of Apr. 23, 1932, On the Reorganization of Literary and Artistic Organizations, the group dissolved.


Gorbov, D. Poiski Galatei: Stat’i o literature. Moscow, 1929.
Pereval’tsy: Antologiia. Moscow, 1930.
Baskevich, I. “O teoreticheskikh vozzreniiakh ‘Perevala’.” Nauchnye doklady vysshei shkoly: Filologicheskie nauki, 1965, no. 1.
Ocherki istorii russkoi sovetskoi zhurnalistiki: 1917–1932. Moscow, 1966. Pages 129–31.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The village of Laza is located on the caravan road (Kurve pereval) to the south-west and north-west of the Greater Caucasus, at an altitude of 1,300 m above sea level.
(82) Aleksei Kosterin reported that Ali Mitaev's followers numbered some 10,000 ("Po Chechne [putevye nabroski]: U miuridov v gostiakh," in Pereval \ Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdate'stvo, 1924], 2:288-306, here 288.
Each of its main chapters examines one of the major literary-artistic groupings of the 1920S (Proletkult, RAPP, LEF, Pereval) and their platforms.