Perforation


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Related to Perforation: perforation of the uterus, Intestinal perforation, Tympanic membrane perforation

perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
How can the risk of colonic perforation at colonoscopy be reduced?
Computed tomography in the study of gastrointestinal perforation.
By the time she was diagnosed with otomycosis, she had developed a subtotal tympanic membrane perforation and she subsequently underwent tympanoplasty and ossiculoplasty (table).
Based on the findings, the Safety Monitoring and Advisory Council that oversaw the study concluded that "the health benefits of IUDs outweigh the rare risk of perforation, including for women postpartum and those breastfeeding.
Colonic perforation is a rare complication of PCNL, for which early diagnosis and conservative management can minimize patient morbidity and mortality.
The overall perforation rate measured by case was 25% and by glove was 3%.
Gastric perforation in an extremely low birth weight infant recovered with percutaneous peritoneal drainage.
There are only two reports in the literature on duodenal perforation possibly caused by Ascaris presenting as an acute abdomen [1, 2].
Intraoperative glove perforation is an important consideration during surgery and is a constant occupational hazard in orthopaedic surgery in particular.
The influences of the reservoir properties, well geometry and perforation parameters on the productivity of perforated wells have been investigated by many researchers (Harris, 1966; Hong, 1975; McLeod, 1983; Karakas and Tariq, 1991; Bell et al.
The success rate of myringoplasty (in terms of perforation closure) of 71% corresponds well with figures quoted in the literature.
Upper or lower GI tract perforation occurred in 696 (0.