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Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.



in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ear was examined for side, size, site, margins of perforation, ear drum remnants, middle ear mucosal status and aural discharge.
Posterior perforation has more A-C threshold among single quadrant perforations, however central perforation has maximum AC threshold (p value significant).
Perforation in membrane or graft material or any kind of graft failure was observed in otoendoscopic examination.
In our series, there was more gastric perforations than duodenal perforation, which is a reverse in the trend documented in the literature in our environment (4,5).
Endoscopic vacuum therapy of anastomotic leakage and iatrogenic perforation in the esophagus.
Gangrene and perforation of the wall of the gallbladder.
Thus the Author Zheng Cai Lou, conducted a prospective controlled study to identify the outcomes of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and gelatin sponge patch treatments for large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs).
A clinical and roentgenological study of 55 cases of root perforation. Int Endod J 1989; 22:75-84.
Esophageal perforations most often occur as a result of iatrogenic injury during surgery or endoscopy.
The latter was preoperatively considered with the highest (previous ear surgery, adhesion, large anterior, or marginal perforation) risk for re-perforation, atelectasis, or need of a stronger graft support.
Decision-making in the managementof colonoscopic perforation: a multicentre retrospective study.