Some researchers have concluded the public's skepticism of GM food was rooted in their intuitive feelings toward the food rather than their knowledge of the technology (Blancke, Van Breusegem, Jeager, Braeckman, & Van Montagu, 2015; Heddy, Danielson, Sinatra, & Graham, 2016; Trevors, Muis, Perkun
, Sinatra, & Winne, 2016).
Consequently, understanding what could be done to engage, activate and enhance positive emotions in order to support motivation, self-regulation and deep learning is crucial (Perkun
2006, Pintrich 2004, Pintrich and Zusho 2007) in these kinds of learning environments.
Shame has been suggested to lie at the core of students' fear of failure (McGregor & Elliot, 2005; Thompson, Sharp, & Alexander, 2008) and to be associated with what have been called performance-avoidance achievement goals (Perkun
, Elliot, & Maier, 2006).
An example of the exposed basalt vein is the so-called "Perkun
fan" structure (Kozlowski and Parachoniak, 1960).