Persian language


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Persian language,

member of the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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 languages). The official language of Iran, it has about 38 million speakers in Iran and another 8 million in Afghanistan. Historically the Persian language falls into three periods: Old, Middle, and Modern. Old Persian is known chiefly from cuneiform inscriptions dating from the time of the Achaemenid kings of ancient Persia (6th–4th cent. B.C.). Old Persian was highly inflected, as was Avestan, which is regarded by some as a form of Old Persian and by others as a separate tongue. Avestan was the language of the sacred texts of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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 that are known as the Avesta (probably composed c.7th–5th cent. B.C.). Middle Persian derives directly from Old Persian. Also called Pahlavi, Middle Persian prevailed under the Sassanid, or Sassanian, rulers of Persia (3d–7th cent. A.D.). Grammatically, much simplification of inflection took place in Middle Persian, which was recorded both in an Aramaic alphabet and in a script called Pahlavi. Middle Persian also had a noteworthy literature of Manichaean and Zoroastrian texts. The modern form of Persian evolved directly from Middle Persian and may be said to have begun in the 9th or 10th cent. A.D. It has not changed much since that date. The grammar of Modern Persian is comparatively simple. The inflection of nouns and verbs has been greatly reduced since the ancient stage of the language. A number of Arabic words were added to the vocabulary as the result of the conquest of the Persians by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. A.D. Modern Persian is the medium of an old and great literature and is written in a modification of the Arabic alphabet. Modern Persian is also known as Fārsī.

Bibliography

See R. G. Kent, Old Persian (1950); A. K. S. Lambton, Persian Grammar (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
The acclaimed French writer, translator, and the former professor at Sorbonne University in Paris has also been teaching Persian language at the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (Inalco).
The speakers would give their inputs regarding advancement of the Persian language by agreeing on the methods and potential strategy for the future.
Born in 1938, he received his Ph.D in Persian Language and Literature from Tajik Academy of Sciences and got his post-doctorate in literature from Moscow University.
I selected the topic for my PHD research when I knew that there was still impact of Persian language on Pashtun society as they were both reading and understanding it Fatima said while presenting her PHD thesis.
The school saw excellent achievements last year when two of its students, Melina Latofangi and Sana Badali, took GCSE exams in Persian language. Melina earned an A* while Sana earned an A.
By mid twentieth century, programs in Persian language and culture operated in Fu'ad, Faruq, and Ibrahim Universities (now Cairo, Alexandria, and 'Ayn Shams Universities, respectively).
There has not been seen a great man like Ferdowsi, and a book like the gloriousness of Shahnama, and a city like the greatness of Tus across the Persian literature and the history of Iranian nation; moreover Ferdowsi is now ruling across the Persian language and O' what am I saying on the wide region of the Iranian heart more than a thousand years; blessed is a land whose lucky ruler is the wise and famous man of Tus and its regulations is the best in fame, then Iran should be pleased and satisfied of living more than a thousand years in the light of ((the epic of just)) and lying down in the shadow-like ((of a shady cypress)) that the free-spirited farmer has formed wholeheartedly its Tus and watered while suffering great anguish and sorrow.
Muscat: Those interested in learning Arabic now have another option to choose from as the Persian Language Centre in Muscat has started offering Arabic language courses.
The first provides for the translation of Tunisian books into the Persian language and vice-versa in order to facilitate students' exchange.
BAGHDAD/ Aswat al-Iraq: Higher Islamic Council- Teheran Branch reported on its Persian language electronic site that "a coup d'etat was made against Iraqi Premier Nouri al-Maliki.
The (http://www.timesofisrael.com/pms-twitter-account-follows-iranian-porn-feed/) Times of Israel reported that Netanyahu's feed subscribed to (https://twitter.com/PersianHotBook) @PersianHotBook - whose description reads: "the first library of hot sex books in the Persian language" - at 1am on Sunday morning.
center's plan to replace the tiles inscribed with poems in the Persian language in Nizami's mausoleum with analogous poems in the