Perugia

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Perugia

(pāro͞o`jä), city (1991 pop. 144,732), capital of Umbria and of Perugia prov., central Italy, situated on a hill overlooking the valley of the Tiber River. It is a commercial, industrial, and tourist center. Manufactures include chocolate, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and machinery. Perugia was inhabited by the Umbrians and the Etruscans before it came under the control of Rome (c.310 B.C.). It became a Lombard duchy in the late 6th cent. A.D. In the 12th cent. it attained the status of a free commune and gradually gained hegemony over other Umbrian cities. Although nominally under papal control, it was in fact ruled by strong tyrants until 1540, when it was conquered by Pope Paul III. To help control the city Pope Paul built an imposing citadel (designed by Antonio da San Gallo and dismantled in 1860). Perugia was the artistic center of Umbria. The Umbrian school of painting (13th–16th cent.) reached its greatest splendor with Perugino (1445–1523), the teacher of Raphael, and with Pinturicchio (1454–1518). Points of interest in the city include the imposing Palazzo dei Priori (13th–15th cent.), which houses the National Gallery of Umbria; the marble Great Fountain (13th cent.), with sculptures by Nicolò Pisano and his son Giovanni; the Collegio del Cambio [exchange hall], with fine frescoes by Perugino and his followers; the Gothic cathedral (14th–15th cent., with later baroque additions); a large Etruscan arch (with Roman and 16th-century additions); the Church of San Pietro; the Gothic Church of San Domenico, which houses an archaeological museum; the Renaissance-style Oratory of San Bernardino; and well-preserved medieval quarters. Perugia is the seat of a university founded in 1308. Nearby is an Etruscan cemetery comprising ten chambers carved out of rock.

Perugia

 

a city in central Italy, near Lake Trasimeno. Capital of the province of Perugia and the region of Umbria. Population, 129,000 (1971). Industries include food processing (primarily chocolate), metalworking, and woodworking. Local enterprises produce wool, ceramics, lace, leather goods, and pottery. The city has a university (13th century). Perugia was founded as a fortress in the fifth century B.C. by the Etruscans.

Perugia has maintained its medieval aspect. Still standing are the remains of the Etruscan city wall, believed to have been built in the fourth to second centuries B.C., with its Roman gates. Parts of the city wall built in the 13th to 16th centuries have also survived. The city has an early Christian circular church, Sant’Angelo (fifth to sixth centuries); numerous Romanesque churches, including Sant’ Ercolano (1297-1326); and a Gothic hall cathedral (1345-1490). Other architectural landmarks include a Renaissance facade (1568, designed by the architect G. Alessi) and, in front of the facade, the Maggiore Fountain (completed in 1278) with sculptures by Nicola and Giovanni Pisano. Also in Perugia is the Gothic Palazzo dei Priori (Palazzo Comunale, 1293-1443), which today houses the National Gallery of Umbria, which contains paintings of the Umbrian school from the 13th to 16th centuries.

REFERENCE

Bonazzi, L. Storia di Perugia dalle origini al 1860, vols. 1-2. Città di Castello, 1959-60.

Perugia

1. a city in central Italy, in Umbria: centre of the Umbrian school of painting (15th century); university (1308); Etruscan and Roman remains. Pop.: 149 125 (2001)
2. Lake. another name for (Lake) Trasimene
References in periodicals archive ?
Propertius' second book opens with a recusatio, which also mentions several events from the civil war and here, too, the siege of Perusia is singled out, this time in a more subtle fashion.
In both the final two poems of Book 1--the only reference to the civil war in the book--and the opening poem of Book 2 the dead are mourned: sepulcra are found at Perusia (1.
Propertius would return to both Perusia and Actium in his fourth book.
Our earliest explicit evidence, from Augustus's own lifetime, on the complicated relationship between Augustus and Iullus Antonius's mother Fulvia is some inscriptions from the battle of Perusia in 41 B.
But they also attack Fulvia as deviantly masculine, in obscene language as well, targeting her landica (clitoris) and her culus; they even name her "the enemy" in addition to (and in one case instead of) the actual commander of Antony's forces at Perusia, her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius.
Here, too, biographical and historical, albeit considerably later, sources such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio furnish independent testimony that Octavian endeavored to cultivate a virile sexual image in the years soon after Perusia, in part because his rival Antony excelled on this particular front.
In addition to foisting the pubescent Clodia off as a bride on the hostile Octavian, she is said to have paraded her children before her husband's soldiers in the conflict leading up to Perusia, and to have fled with them after Perusia to Brundisium before meeting up with Antony and his mother Julia in Athens.
98) The extent of Fulvia's involvement is indicated by the personal hostility which Octavian's forces showed towards her when they inscribed their sling-shot pellets with obscene graffiti bearing references to, among other things, the over-used state of her genitalia, even though she was not in Perusia at the time, but in nearby Praeneste.
Principal battles: Philippi I and II (42); Perusia (Perugia) (41); Actium (31).
Cassius (September 42), and defeated them at the First and Second Battles of Philippi (October 26 and November 16, 42); returned to Italy and suppressed the revolt of Antony's brother Lucius Antonius at Perusia (41); avoided an open break with Antony, and the two settled their disputes at the treaty of Brundisium (Brindisi) (40); campaigned against Sextus Pompeius, assisted by the able Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (40-36); led an expedition to pacify Dalmatia, Illyria (Yugoslavia), and Pannonia (western Hungary) (34); quarreled with Antony over Antony's treatment of Octavius' sister and his marriage to Cleopatra; roused the people of Rome against Antony (33); assembled a large army and fleet in southeastern Italy (winter 32-31), and crossed to Greece (April?
21, a poem about a certain Gallus, who was either a kinsman of Propertius or, more likely, a fictional character who has been mortally wounded at the battle of Perusia.