Pescadores Islands


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Pescadores Islands

 

(P’enghu), an archipelago in the Formosa Strait, a territory of China. The Pescadores consist of 64 islands. Area, 127 sq km.

Flat basaltic plateaus predominate on the islands, with elevations reaching 48 m. The coastline is very rugged. The climate is tropical and monsoonal. Rainfall exceeds 1,000 mm annually and is heaviest in summer. Typhoons are frequent in autumn. Much of the population is engaged in fishing. Sweet potatoes, peanuts, corn, and millet are cultivated.

The first migration from continental China to the Pescadores Islands was in the third century B.C. According to Chinese chronicles, late in the sixth century an emperor of the Sui dynasty sent Ch’en Leng, a military leader, to govern the islands. In 1360, during the Mongol dynasty in China, a bureau for the supervision of the Pescadores Islands was established. In the late 15th century, during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Chinese troops were quartered in the archipelago.

In 1623, the Pescadores Islands and Taiwan were seized by the Dutch, who were only driven off in 1661 and 1662 by the troops of the Chinese military leader Cheng Ch’eng-kung.

As a result of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 and 1895, the Pescadores and Taiwan were seized by Japanese imperialists. In 1945, after the defeat of Japan in World War II (1939–45), these territories were restored to China. In 1949, after the overthrow of the Kuomintang in China, Chiang Kai-shek’s remaining troops were evacuated to the Pescadores Islands and Taiwan.

References in periodicals archive ?
By using the NOAA-HYSPLIT model, the dates with high particle concentration at the Pescadores Islands were determined and the transportation routes of air parcels toward the Pescadores Islands during the sampling periods were then simulated.
The enrichment factor (EF) defined by (1) was used to correlate the downwind atmospheric particles sampled at the Pescadores Islands, Taiwan, to ADS originated from Inner Mongolia, China:
A total of 18 ADS events were observed at the Pescadores Islands from November 2002 to April 2006.
When the ADS transported toward the east, the transportation routes would detour toward the southwest due to atmospheric circulation, which usually passed through the Pescadores Islands. The STC-type ADS events were mainly affected by the strength of the northeastern monsoons mostly observed from November to next April, accounting for about 22.2% of the total of 18 ADS events.
All of the ADS routes were transported along the coastline or passed through the major mega cities of North and/or East China, which could alter the chemical composition of atmospheric dusts while transporting from the Inner Mongolia to the Pescadores Islands. During the transportation processes, Asian dusts would mix with particulate matter emitted from local anthropogenic, industrial, and mobile sources.
The chemical composition between the soils collected in the eastern and western soil sources of Inner Mongolia and Asian dusts sampled at the Pescadores Islands were similar, except the water-soluble [Ca.sup.2+] and metal Ca.
Moreover, Asian dusts could be long-range transported across the ocean to the Pescadores Islands, which could increase the proportion of [Na.sup.+] and [Cl.sup.-] due to oceanic spray.
The enrichment factor was further applied to identify the ADS source region in the Inner Mongolia toward the Pescadores Islands in this study.
Generally speaking, the source allocation methods of ADS transported from Inner Mongolia to the Pescadores Islands were relatively accurate, especially for simultaneous application of enrichment factor and grey relational analysis.
Table 4 lists the mass ratio of Al/Sr for resuspended soils collected in the Inner Mongolia and atmospheric particles sampled at the Pescadores Islands. The results showed that the resuspended soil samples in the central Inner Mongolia had relatively higher Al/Sr ratio (325.0 [+ or -] 118.0) and observed simultaneously with the higher Al/Sr ratio (161.1 [+ or -] 65.1) of atmospheric particles at the Pescadores Islands.
This study successfully combined backward trajectory calculation, enrichment factor, and grey relational analysis to allocate the potential source(s) of 18 ADS events, and identified the transportation routes of Asian dusts transported from the Inner Mongolia to the Pescadores Islands. Three major transportation routes observed for 18 ADS events included ETR, STC, and SST.