pesticide

(redirected from Pesticide management)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

pesticide,

biological, physical, or chemical agent used to kill plants or animals that are harmful to people; in practice, the term pesticide is often applied only to chemical agents. Various pesticides are known as insecticidesinsecticides,
chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term commonly refers to chemical agents only. Chemical Insecticides

The modern history of chemical insecticides in the United States dates from 1867, when Paris green proved
..... Click the link for more information.
, nematicides, fungicidesfungicide
, any substance used to destroy fungi. Some fungi are extremely damaging to crops (see diseases of plants), and others cause diseases in humans and other animals (see fungal infection).
..... Click the link for more information.
, herbicidesherbicide
, chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and rodenticides, i.e., agents primarily effective against insects, nematodes (or roundworms), fungi, weeds, and rodents, respectively.

Pesticides can be derived from plants (e.g., pyrethrin, neem) or minerals, or they can be chemically manufactured (e.g., DDT, 2,4-D). Natural predators and other biological methods are also used. Among the biological agents, parasites and predators feed on pests, pathogens sicken them, and pheromonespheromones,
any of a variety of substances, secreted by many animal species, that alter the behavior of individuals of the same species. Sex attractant pheromones, secreted by a male or female to attract the opposite sex, are widespread among insects.
..... Click the link for more information.
 interfere with insect mating. There are also genetically engineered pesticides, such as the toxin-producing Bacillus thuringiensis strain used against moth larvae.

Chemical pesticides are usually contact, stomach, or fumigant poisons. Contact poisons may have immediate or delayed effects after physical contact with a pest. Fumigants, which may initially have the form of a solid, liquid, or gas, kill pests while in a gaseous state.

Some insecticides and fungicides are systemic, i.e., they are translocated by a plant from the area of application to other plant parts, where they affect only pests that feed on the crop. Nonselective pesticides can affect both the targeted pest and other organisms; selective pesticides affect only the target pest. Persistent pesticides are those that remain in the environment for a long time.

Since the publication of Rachel CarsonCarson, Rachel Louise,
1907–64, American writer and marine biologist, b. Springdale, Pa., M.A. Johns Hopkins, 1932. Her well-known books on sea life—Under the Sea-Wind (1941), The Sea around Us (1951), and The Edge of the Sea
..... Click the link for more information.
's Silent Spring in the 1960s, there has been concern regarding the effects of chemical pesticides on humans and on the environment. In the environment, the biological concentration of chemical pesticides (the amount retained in an organism through direct contact or consumption of affected plants or animals) tends to increase the higher the animal is in the food chain. DDTDDT
or 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1,-trichloroethane, chlorinated hydrocarbon compound used as an insecticide. First introduced during the 1940s, it killed insects that spread disease and fed on crops, and Swiss scientist Paul Müller was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize
..... Click the link for more information.
, for example, severely reduced the rate of reproduction in many fish and birds.

Chemical pesticides now undergo exhaustive and expensive trials prior to government registration and release. The carcinogenicity of some pesticide components, however, is a vigorously debated topic. Government testing often uses massive amounts of such substances on laboratory animals, creating what some critics feel is an exaggerated assessment of their danger. Humans are heavily exposed to pesticides usually as a result of acute exposure, such as accidental inhalation, on the job.

Potential dangers from pesticide use must be weighed against improved crop quality and yield and greatly improved human health around the world, as well as the availability of disease-preventing fresh fruits and vegetables that the use of pesticides has made possible. Nevertheless, many consumers are concerned about the effects of pesticide residues in foods, especially for infants, whose systems may not be able to convert toxic chemicals into harmless substances as readily as adult systems can. In addition, concerns have been raised for farm workers in developing countries that lack the protective safeguards required in the United States; their health is threatened by the continued use of pesticides that are known health hazards. Efforts are being made to reduce chemical pesticide use in favor of Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated Pest Management
(IPM), planned program that coordinates economically and environmentally acceptable methods of pest control with the judicious and minimal use of toxic pesticides.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (IPM), biological controls, and plant breeding for inherent pest resistance.

Bibliography

See R. Carson, Silent Spring (1962); P. Hurst et al., The Pesticides Handbook (1991); G. J. Marco et al., ed., Regulation of Agrochemicals (1991).

pesticide

[′pes·tə‚sīd]
(materials)
A chemical agent that destroys pests. Also known as biocide.

pesticide

a chemical used for killing pests, esp insects and rodents
References in periodicals archive ?
Al Muhairi added that the council had earlier issued a technical report on pesticide management, with recommendations to improve existing management practices.
In California, there has been some progress in real IPM, but integrated pesticide management remains the dominant practice for many crops.
For erosion and sediment control practices, the adoption rates ranged from 19 to 31 percent; for grazing management practices, 57 to 75 percent; and for mortality, nutrient, pesticide management practices, 53 to 65 percent.
They then worked with extension educators to distribute these materials to farmers through the Pesticide Management and Education Program offered by Cornell Cooperative Extension.
The web-based model prototype will provide a community, such as Indiana, with a medium for collectively building a pesticide management database for the entire state using data collection and computer simulations.
Revisions in Bank policy for energy and pesticide management lend strong support to these fears.
Tenders are invited for Invitation of online bids through e-procurement system in two cover for supply of laboratory equipment for pesticide management division
Key WORDS: environment, health risks, malaria, pesticide legislation, pesticide management, pesticide regulation, public health pesticides, vector-borne diseases, vector control.
Griggs has worked as conservation agent for Maynard for the past two years, has a master of arts in environmental planning from the Conway School of Landscape Design, a bachelor's of fine arts from the University of Hartford, and completed certification courses in conservation planning, water quality, pesticide management, wetlands protection, and state environmental laws.
Pesticide management advice is an important part of this project.
The 21 BMPs, listed in Table 1 and described in the cited Louisiana State University Agricultural Center publication, include erosion and sediment control, facility wastewater and runoff management, nutrient and pesticide management and grazing management practices.

Full browser ?