Saltykov, Petr Semenovich
Born 1698; died Dec. 26, 1772 (Jan. 6, 1773), in Marfino, now in Mytishchi Raion, Moscow Oblast. Russian general, field marshal (1759). Count (1733). Son of General S. A. Saltykov, who was related on his mother’s side to Empress Anna Ivanovna.
Saltykov joined the guards as a soldier in 1714 and was sent to study naval affairs in France, where he remained until the early 1730’s. In 1734 he fought in the campaign in Poland against Stanisław Leszcyński. Saltykov became an adjutant general in 1740. He served in the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–43 and then commanded the Ukrainian Land Militia. During the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) he was commander in chief of the Russian Army in 1759–60 and in 1762 and won brilliant victories over the Prussian Army at Palzig and in the battle of Kunersdorf of 1759. He was relieved of his position as commander in chief in 1760 because of disagreements with the Austrian command and with the Supreme War Council in St. Petersburg. He was high commander and governor-general of Moscow from 1764 to 1771. Saltykov was accused of inefficiency during the plague epidemic in Moscow in 1770–71 and was placed in retirement.