Petrodvorets,Russia: see PeterhofPeterhof
, formerly (1944–97) Petrodvorets
, town, NW European Russia, on Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Administratively part of Saint Petersburg, Peterhof is a port, a rail terminus, and a resort center.
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(until 1944, Petergof), a city in Leningrad Oblast, RSFSR, under the jurisdiction of the Leningrad City Soviet. Landing on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland; railroad station, 29 km west of Leningrad. Population, 63,000 (1974). The city has a watch factory (the former Petergof Lapidary Works). The construction of Petrodvorets began in 1709 in accordance with a decree of Peter I, who had decided to create a summer residence reminiscent of Versailles with a palace, park, and fountains.
Located in Petrodvorets is one of the Soviet Union’s largest architectural-park ensembles of the 18th- and 19th centuries (about 1,000 hectares; now known as the Palace-Museums and Parks of the City of Petrodvorets). The ensemble’s nucleus is the magnificent residence of Peter I, who was largely responsible for its design. Between 1714 and 1725 he supervised the landscaping of the formal Upper Garden (15 hectares) and the Lower Park (102.5 hectares) and the construction of the Great Palace (completed c. 1728), the palaces of Mon Plaisir and Marli, the Great Greenhouse, and a number of baroque pavilions. Peter also directed the installation of the world’s largest system of fountains and cascades (individual cascades and fountains were created later) and the execution of most of their sculptural decoration (numerous gilded lead statues, bas-reliefs, mascarons, vases; between 1799 and 1806 the lead statues were replaced by gilded bronze ones). The sculptors included I. P. Martos, I. P. Prok-of’ ev, Zh. D. Rashett, F. I. Shubin, and F. F. Shchedrin. The regularity and symmetry of the general plan were skillfully combined with the natural relief and with a diversity of artistic solutions for individual elements of the park, pavilions, and fountains. From the two crisscrossing avenues that fan out from the Marli Palace and the Great Palace, which rises high above a steep slope, there open up emotionally exciting panoramic views of the Great Cascade and the Naval Canal. Also visible are the distant silhouettes of Kronstadt and Leningrad. There are both intimate and majestic views overlooking individual structures, fountains, and buildings. In the middle of the 18th century the Great Palace was renovated and enlarged.
Beginning in the 1770’s a number of parks were landscaped around the original nucleus of Petrodvorets. These included English Park (1779-94, architect G. Quarenghi), Aleksandriia Park (1826-29, architect A. A. Menelas), and Aleksandrovskii Park (now Proletarskii Park, 1830’s). The parks had palaces and pavilions in the classical and pseudo-Gothic styles.
The ensemble, seriously damaged between 1941 and 1944 by the fascist invaders, is being restored in accordance with a 1945 plan (architects N. V. Baranov, A. E. Gessen, A. A. OP, V. M. Savkov, E. V. Kazanskaia, and others). Reproductions of the bronze statues that were lost have been made, 144 fountains and cascades have been put in operation, and the interiors of palaces and pavilions have been opened for viewing.
In accordance with a Nov. 26, 1973, decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Petrodvorets was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor. This order, which was awarded in connection with the 250th anniversary of the palace and park ensemble, acknowledged the great contribution made by the working people of Petrodvorets in the restoration and development of the palaces-museums and parks.
REFERENCESArkhipov, N. I., and A. G. Raskin. Petrodvorets. Leningrad-Moscow, 1961.
Fedorova, N. N. Parki Petrodvortsa, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1966.
Kedrinskii, A. A., M. G. Kolotov, L. A. Mederskii, and A. G. Raskin. Letopis’ vozrozhdeniia. Leningrad, 1971.
Ardikutsa, V. E. Fontany Petrodvortsa. Leningrad, 1972.
Ardikutsa, V. E. Petrodvorets: Putevoditel’. [Leningrad] 1974.