Petrodvorets

Petrodvorets,

Russia: see PeterhofPeterhof
or Petergof
, formerly (1944–97) Petrodvorets
, town, NW European Russia, on Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Administratively part of Saint Petersburg, Peterhof is a port, a rail terminus, and a resort center.
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Petrodvorets

 

(until 1944, Petergof), a city in Leningrad Oblast, RSFSR, under the jurisdiction of the Leningrad City Soviet. Landing on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland; railroad station, 29 km west of Leningrad. Population, 63,000 (1974). The city has a watch factory (the former Petergof Lapidary Works). The construction of Petrodvorets began in 1709 in accordance with a decree of Peter I, who had decided to create a summer residence reminiscent of Versailles with a palace, park, and fountains.

Located in Petrodvorets is one of the Soviet Union’s largest architectural-park ensembles of the 18th- and 19th centuries (about 1,000 hectares; now known as the Palace-Museums and Parks of the City of Petrodvorets). The ensemble’s nucleus is the magnificent residence of Peter I, who was largely responsible for its design. Between 1714 and 1725 he supervised the landscaping of the formal Upper Garden (15 hectares) and the Lower Park (102.5 hectares) and the construction of the Great Palace (completed c. 1728), the palaces of Mon Plaisir and Marli, the Great Greenhouse, and a number of baroque pavilions. Peter also directed the installation of the world’s largest system of fountains and cascades (individual cascades and fountains were created later) and the execution of most of their sculptural decoration (numerous gilded lead statues, bas-reliefs, mascarons, vases; between 1799 and 1806 the lead statues were replaced by gilded bronze ones). The sculptors included I. P. Martos, I. P. Prok-of’ ev, Zh. D. Rashett, F. I. Shubin, and F. F. Shchedrin. The regularity and symmetry of the general plan were skillfully combined with the natural relief and with a diversity of artistic solutions for individual elements of the park, pavilions, and fountains. From the two crisscrossing avenues that fan out from the Marli Palace and the Great Palace, which rises high above a steep slope, there open up emotionally exciting panoramic views of the Great Cascade and the Naval Canal. Also visible are the distant silhouettes of Kronstadt and Leningrad. There are both intimate and majestic views overlooking individual structures, fountains, and buildings. In the middle of the 18th century the Great Palace was renovated and enlarged.

Beginning in the 1770’s a number of parks were landscaped around the original nucleus of Petrodvorets. These included English Park (1779-94, architect G. Quarenghi), Aleksandriia Park (1826-29, architect A. A. Menelas), and Aleksandrovskii Park (now Proletarskii Park, 1830’s). The parks had palaces and pavilions in the classical and pseudo-Gothic styles.

The ensemble, seriously damaged between 1941 and 1944 by the fascist invaders, is being restored in accordance with a 1945 plan (architects N. V. Baranov, A. E. Gessen, A. A. OP, V. M. Savkov, E. V. Kazanskaia, and others). Reproductions of the bronze statues that were lost have been made, 144 fountains and cascades have been put in operation, and the interiors of palaces and pavilions have been opened for viewing.

In accordance with a Nov. 26, 1973, decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Petrodvorets was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor. This order, which was awarded in connection with the 250th anniversary of the palace and park ensemble, acknowledged the great contribution made by the working people of Petrodvorets in the restoration and development of the palaces-museums and parks.

REFERENCES

Arkhipov, N. I., and A. G. Raskin. Petrodvorets. Leningrad-Moscow, 1961.
Fedorova, N. N. Parki Petrodvortsa, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1966.
Kedrinskii, A. A., M. G. Kolotov, L. A. Mederskii, and A. G. Raskin. Letopis’ vozrozhdeniia. Leningrad, 1971.
Ardikutsa, V. E. Fontany Petrodvortsa. Leningrad, 1972.
Ardikutsa, V. E. Petrodvorets: Putevoditel’. [Leningrad] 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
Overlooking the Gulf of Finland, the Palace of Petrodvorets or Peterhof, can be reached either by land or hydrofoil and is visually impressive, with over 300 fountains in its landscaped gardens.
Explore Dostoyevsky's Haymarket quarter, take in the opulent Marinsky Theatre - home to the world-renowned 'Kirov' Ballet - and join the optional excursion to the fabled Summer Palace at Petrodvorets.
SUPER ST PETERSBURG: Church On The Blood and (below) the lovely fountains at Petrodvorets
Mrs Blair's comments came as she was given a guided tour of the Petrodvorets palace, just outside St Petersburg, while her husband was locked in talks with his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin.
The revelation came in unguarded comments to a Russian television journalist during a tour of Petrodvorets Palace, near St PetersROW: Tony Blair issued
Highlights of our days were visits to Petrodvorets, the czars' summer palace on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, a boat ride on the canals that earned the city the nickname "Venice of the North" and, of course, the Hermitage.
The delegation visited the Mariinsky Theatre at Yusupov Palace, the Hermitage, the Russian National Library, Petrodvorets, the Russian Museum, the Russian State Library, the National Academy of Sciences, the Historical Museum, and the Tretyakov Gallery.
A hydrofoil from the nearby riverbank runs 20km out into the Gulf of Finland to Petrodvorets, the summer resident of the Tsars.
Open Competition: Provision of services for the organization and conduct of activities commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in Petrodvorets district of St.
4 "Security of objects, located in Petrodvorets area, Saint-Petersburg";