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Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski(pyĕtrəpäv`ləfsk, kəmchät`skē), city (1989 pop. 269,000), capital of Kamchatka Territory, Russian Far East. It is a major port and naval base on the Northern Sea Route, and there are shipyards and lumber mills. Free of ice seven months of the year, it is the base for a large fishing fleet. Bering founded the port in 1740. During the Crimean WarCrimean War
, 1853–56, war between Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia on the other. The causes of the conflict were inherent in the unsolved Eastern Question.
..... Click the link for more information. , there were attacks on the port by French and British naval units.
a city, the administrative center of Sever-nyi Kazakhstan Oblast, Kazakh SSR. It is situated in the southwestern part of the Western Siberian Lowland, on the right bank of the Ishim River, at the point where it is crossed by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Stretching from Petropavlovsk to the south is the Tselinograd-Karaganda-Mointy-Chu railroad line. Population, 188,000 (1974; 92,000 in 1939; 131,000 in 1959).
Petropavlovsk was founded in 1752 as a fortress on the Ishim Fortified Line. It became a city in 1807. From 1824 to 1839 it served as a district city of Omsk Oblast, and from 1868 to 1918 as a district city of Akmolinsk Oblast. It was a center for Russian trade with the countries of Middle Asia. In 1896 the Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed through Petropavlovsk. In early June 1918 the city was captured by the White Czechs. As a result of the Petropavlovsk operation of 1919, the city was liberated from the White Guards on October 31.
During the building of socialism, Petropavlovsk was transformed into the industrial center of Kazakhstan. Machine building and metalworking were developed, with the principal plants producing machines, low-powered engines, actuators, and insulation material. Among the city’s largest enterprises is a meat combine (second in the republic only to Semipalatinsk); there is also a flour-milling combine, a dairy, and a tannery. In addition, garments, footwear, and building materials are produced in the city.
Petropavlovsk has a pedagogical institute, a branch of the Urals Polytechnic Institute, and mechanics, railroad transport, agricultural mechanization, accounting and economics, and industrial teachers technicums. There are also schools of medicine, pedagogy, and music teaching. Petropavlovsk has a theater, a philharmonic society, and a museum of local lore.
the name of several ships of the Russian and Soviet Baltic Fleet. (1) A squadron armor-clad. It was laid in 1892, launched in 1894, and commissioned in 1897. The Petropavlovsk had a water displacement of 11,300 tons; it was armed with four 305-mm guns, 12 152-mm guns, 40 small-caliber guns, and six torpedo tubes; and its speed was 31 km per hr (17 knots).
The Petropavlovsk was transferred from the Baltic Sea to the Far East and at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 was in Port Arthur as the flagship of the Russian Pacific Squadron. On March 31 (April 13) the Petropavlovsk was blown up after striking Japanese mines 2 miles from Port Arthur. Admiral S. O. Makarov and the painter V. V. Vereshchagin were among those who died in the catastrophe.
(2) A battleship of the Sevastopol’ type, commissioned in December 1914. In 1917 the crew of the Petropavlovsk actively participated in the revolutionary events under Bolshevik leadership. After the October Revolution of 1917, the Petropavlovsk fought with other ships in the Ice Campaign of the Baltic Fleet of 1918, and its crew fought on land against White Guard forces. The Petropavlovsk was part of the Kronstadt naval forces in 1918 and of the operating detachment of the Baltic Fleet from late 1918. In the Petrograd defense of 1919 it covered the coastal flanks of the Soviet troops and supported them with artillery fire during the crushing of the revolt in the Krasnaia Gorka and Seraia Loshad’ forts. It also provided cover for the destroyers in Koporia Bay.
After the Civil War of 1918-20, the Petropavlovsk (called Marat from March 1921 to May 1943) underwent major repair, and in the 1930’s it was modernized. It saw action in the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939-40. In September 1941 the ship was seriously damaged during a fascist German air raid on Kronstadt, but after the main-caliber artillery system was repaired, the Marat lent fire support to ground forces at Leningrad, especially in January 1944. It was a training ship after the war.
(3) A cruiser, formerly the German cruiser Liitzow, bought from Germany in 1940. Although at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War (1941-45), the Petropavlovsk was insufficiently equipped, it participated in the defense of Leningrad, holding a firing position in the commercial port and conducting artillery fire at the enemy. It was renamed Tallinn in May 1943 and converted into the depot ship Dnieper after the war.