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art of compounding and dispensing drugs and medication. The term is also applied to an establishment used for such purposes. Until modern times medication was prepared and dispensed by the physician himself. In the 18th cent. the practice of pharmacy began to be separated from that of medicine. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science was founded in 1821, the first school of its kind in the United States. The American Pharmaceutical Association was formed in 1851. The progress of medicine, and therefore the expansion of pharmacy, has necessitated more stringent requirements in the training of pharmacists; it is of vital interest that medications be formulated accurately according to the physician's prescription. Schools of pharmacy are now associated with universities, and a degree in pharmacy follows a four-year course of instruction. Examination and licensing by the state is mandatory.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an establishment for the preparation, storage, and dispensing of medicines and other medical commodities. There is information that laboratories for the preparation of medicines existed in countries of the ancient world (China, Egypt, and Rome). The pharmacy as a government-regulated institution originated in Baghdad in the eighth century. The pharmacy of that period was characterized by the presence of laboratories where comparatively complex medications were prepared and synthesized. It was only in the 19th and 20th centuries that the development of the pharmaceutical industry caused laboratories in pharmacies to lose their importance.

There is no reliable information concerning the time of the founding of pharmacies in Russia. The first government-regulated tsarist pharmacy dates to 1581. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the highest government organ of medical and pharmaceutical affairs was the Aptekarskii prikaz (pharmaceutical department). In 1701, Peter I issued a decree on the organization of private pharmacies in Moscow. At the end of the 18th century there were about 100 pharmacies in Russia. Their activities were regulated by the Aptekarskii ustav (pharmaceutical charter; 1789). With the development of zemstvo (district assembly) institutions, zemstvo pharmacies began to be established. By 1914 there were 4,791 pharmacies in Russia, including about 200 zemstvo pharmacies. After the Great October Revolution, the Council of People’s Commissars issued a decree (Dec. 28, 1918) on the nationalization of pharmacies; they were transferred to the authority of the People’s Commissariat of Public Health.

General management of pharmacies is carried out by the Pharmaceutical Board of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR through pharmaceutical boards of the oblasts (krais) and republics. As of Jan. 1, 1970, there were over 20,000 pharmacies in the USSR (including municipal, central, regional in rural areas, and interhospital), existing at government expense. In addition, there were more than 3,000 hospital pharmacies on the government budget, as well as pharmacies of individual departments.

Special premises and equipment are set aside in the pharmacy for the preparation of medicines. All medicines dispensed by the pharmacy are subject to control. The preparation and dispensation of medications, their control, and their storage are performed according to the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR by persons with specialized pharmaceutical training. In capitalist countries, pharmacies are private-enterprise institutions. In most countries, prices for medications are not regulated.


Zmeev, L. F. Pervye apteki v Rossii. Moscow, 1887.
50 let sovetskogo zdravookhraneniia: 1917–1967. Moscow, 1967. Pages 176–182.




a combined scientific and practical discipline concerned with discovering, obtaining, investigating, storing, preparing, and dispensing medical products. Pharmacy and pharmacology together make up the science of drugs. Pharmacy includes pharmaceutical chemistry, drug preparation and packaging, forensic chemistry, pharmacognosy, and the organization and economics of pharmacy. A promising area of pharmaceutical research is biological pharmacy, which studies the relationship between the effect of a drug and the way it is manufactured and administered. Pharmacy specialists in the USSR are called farmatsevty. Pharmacy institutions include pharmacies, warehouses, analytic laboratories, research institutes, laboratories and enterprises that produce drugs, and establishments that collect and process medicinal plants.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Also known as pharmaceutics.
The art and science of the preparation and dispensation of drugs.
A place where drugs are dispensed.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the practice or art of preparing and dispensing drugs
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
However, under Pennsylvania law, the judge in the Phar Mor case ruled the plaintiffs were not primary beneficiaries, meaning the plaintiffs were required to prove by clear and convincing evidence that either (1) the auditor knew the financial statements were misrepresented, or (2) the auditor issued an audit opinion recklessly (i.e., without caring if the representations in the financial statements were true or false).
Attorneys for Coopers continually impressed upon the jury that this was a massive fraud perpetrated by Phar Mor's management.
Moreover, they did not allege that Coopers knowingly participated in the Phar Mor fraud; nor did they allege Coopers was liable because they did not find the fraud.
We do know that we invested in Phar Mor on the basis of the financials of Phar Mor, with the clean opinions of Coopers & Lybrand.
The question is whether Coopers falsely and misleadingly stated that it conducted a GAAS audit and falsely and misleadingly told [plaintiffs] that Phar Mor's worthless financial statements were fairly presented.
In 1932, Phar Lap was invited to run in the Agua Caliente Handicap near T ijuana in Mexico.
The race was worth $50,000, a huge prize at the time, and Phar Lap saw off the best the US could muster in track-record time - on his first outing on dirt, in the Mexican heat (it was winter in Australia) and after crossing the Pacific by ship.
Phar Lap, ridden by Jim Pike, pictured after winning the Australian Derby at Randwick in October, 1929
They have been running well and we needed a bit of luck-and certainly got that with Phar Less Hassle.
That was reference to another never-say-die McCoy effort on Phar Less Hassle which turned defeat into victory in the two-and-a-half-mile handicap chase.
Conditional Joe Byrne had cheekily crept up the inside of McCoy to lead on Guilder and look the likelier winner two out-but he was unseated, leaving Phar Less Hassle clear.
Joe Byrne and Guilder part company at the second-last in Plumpton's Edwin Hill Handicap Chase, handing victory to Phar Less Hassle and Tony McCoy