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The present study investigated the effect of modified Shaker exercise on pharyngeal muscle contraction using cervical auscultation.
This increase in the peak amplitude could be attributed to the increased elevation of the larynx, thereby facilitating the pharyngeal muscle movement during the modified Shaker exercise.
This suggests that modified Shaker exercise did not affect the duration of swallow sounds indicating that duration of pharyngeal muscle contraction is not altered by this exercise.
It appears clear that sleep-related de pression of neuromuscular function and alteration of reflex control of pharyngeal muscles result in marked increases in upper airway collapsibility and elevation in pharyngeal Pcrit in normals, snorers, and patients with OSA and UARS.
Finally, the fourth approach is surgery' to implant a pacemaker for pacing pharyngeal muscles (i.e., the genioglossus) to dilate the upper airway.83
[28] It has been demonstrated in English bulldogs that upper airway compromise requires abnormally elevated levels of pharyngeal muscle activity to maintain pharyngeal patency during wakefulness.