On the other hand, in frequency response based approaches, some important performance indicators such as sensitivity, gain and

phase margin (GM, PM) values are often used [11]-[13], [16], [28], [40], [41].

1] related to the PWM switching frequency and required

phase margin values, and (iii) the modeling of the load and the VSI.

The FRA can be used to make Bode plots to perform gain and

phase margin analysis of filters, operational amplifiers, and control loop response.

The

phase margin (colored part of the bit) is caused by several effects: quantization error, shift due to oscillator tolerance, bit asymmetry due to the above mentioned physical layer components, and instability of the RX signal due to ringing on the bus lines caused by impedance mis-matches [4.

4(c) that the

phase margin is around 90[degrees] at the crossover frequency of the current loop Ti (s), and it has higher bandwidth when compared with the voltage loop Tv (s).

The J2112A is used for fast and accurate (better than 1 [micro]A resolution) transient load stepping and profiling, as well as PDN, output impedance and non-invasive

phase margin measurement.

gain margin,

phase margin, maximum sensitivity function gain).

The third-order loop filter is calculated by following Baberjee's method (5) with a

phase margin of 45[degrees] and a loop bandwidth of 1 kHz, taking the lock time specification into consideration.

Examples include 45[degrees]

phase margin, amplifier gain of 100, filter bandwidth of 12 kHz and minimum overshoot of 250 mV.

The gain can be spent increasing

phase margin to provide greater stability or taken as an open-loop gain, which further reduces voltage burden.

The Bode phase diagram is superimposed on the magnitude plot for easy calculation of

phase margin or gain margin.

pp], 100 KHz) 100 KHz) Capacitive Load (pF) 80 80

Phase Margin ([degrees]) 89.