Lack of 100% correlation of vaginal biocoenosis test results with the cytological results according to the Bethesda system means that assessing the vaginal microflora in phase-contrast microscopy
should not be abandoned.
There are several features which represent the characteristics of phase-contrast microscopy
images, such as SIFT , GIST , etc.
The sensitivity of this technique can be further increased by using phase-contrast microscopy
or examination at 400x magnification.
Figure 2 shows micrographs obtained by phase-contrast microscopy
of cross section (a) H-SC, (b) H-Q, (c) HSCA, and (d) H-QA sheet samples.
Samples were examined under phase-contrast microscopy
by using an improved Neubauer hemocytometer (Hawksley and Sons, Lancing, UK).
This reprint of the original 2003 edition covers: elementary principles of phase-contrast microscopy
, electron optics, wave optics, coherence and Fourier optics, STEM and Z-contrast, electron sources and detectors, measurement of electron-optical parameters, instabilities and the microscope environment, experimental methods, and associated techniques.
Trypan blue exclusion assay, phase-contrast microscopy
, loss of cell adherence, and MTT assay were used to evaluate cadmium toxicity.
The upper reference limits for phase-contrast microscopy
used in our laboratory are as follows: erythrocytes, <2/high-power field (HPF); leukocytes, <4/HPF; small-sized hyaline casts, <4 in each slide; hyaline with medium or large diameter, cellular, granular, granulo-hematic, waxy casts, none; cystine crystals, none; other crystals, rare (<10 in each slide).
These fractions were free of spores and aggregates of any kind, as observed by phase-contrast microscopy
, SEM, and incubation on LB agar plates.
The oocysts cannot be detected by standard ova and parasite testing; methods specific for Cyclospora include modified acid-fast or other stains, autofluorescence with ultraviolet epifluorescence microscopy, and wet mount under phase-contrast microscopy
The only subtle difference is that the Mg-actin bundles tend to reach a larger size than PEG-actin bundles, and the difference is more apparent by phase-contrast microscopy
(data not shown).