Phase-locked loops

Phase-locked loops

Electronic circuits for locking an oscillator in phase with an arbitrary input signal. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is used in two fundamentally different ways: (1) as a demodulator, where it is employed to follow (and demodulate) frequency or phase modulation, and (2) to track a carrier or synchronizing signal which may vary in frequency with time. When operating as a demodulator, the PLL may be thought of as a matched filter operating as a coherent detector. When used to track a carrier, it may be thought of as a narrowband filter for removing noise from the signal and regenerating a clean replica of the signal. See Demodulator

The basic components of a phase-locked loop are shown in the illustration. The input signal is a sine or square wave of arbitrary frequency. The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) output signal is a sine or square wave of the same frequency as the input, but the phase angle between the two is arbitrary. The output of the phase detector consists of a direct-current (dc) term, and components of the input frequency and its harmonics. The low-pass filter removes all alternating-current (ac) components, leaving the dc component, the magnitude of which is a function of the phase angle between the VCO signal and the input signal. If the frequency of the input signal changes, a change in phase angle between these signals will produce a change in the dc control voltage in such a manner as to vary the frequency of the VCO to track the frequency of the input signal.

The most widespread use of phase-locked loops is undoubtedly in television receivers. Synchronization of the horizontal oscillator to the transmitted sync pulses is universally accomplished with a PLL. The color reference oscillator is often synchronized with a phase-locked loop. Phase-locked loops are also used as frequency demodulators. They have been applied to stereo decoders made on silicon monolithic integrated circuits. High-performance amplitude demodulators may be built using phase-lock techniques. See Amplitude-modulation detector

References in periodicals archive ?
Typical applications include phase-locked loops, frequency synthesizers function generators and as a local oscillator source in receiver and transmitter stages.
The device also offers distributed RAM, phase-locked loops (PLLs), advanced configuration support, and support user flash memory.
For monocomponent AM-FM signals many successful demodulation approaches have existed, ranging from standard methods such as Hilbert transform demodulation [1] or phase-locked loops (PLL's) to the recent energy separation algorithm (ESA) that tracks and demodulates the energy of the source producing the AM-FM signal using instantaneous nonlinear differential operators [2]-[18].
Abramovi[t.sub.c]h, "Phase-locked loops: a control centric tutorial", Proc.
Among the topics are optical devices, limiting amplifiers and output buffers, oscillator fundamentals, phase-locked loops, and multiplexers and laser drivers.
Such traditional approaches require sophisticated low-noise electronic components such as lock-in amplifiers and phase-locked loops, which add cost and complexity.
Brennan, Phase-locked Loops: Principles and Practices, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Alain Blachard, Phase-Locked Loops, Wiely 1976 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Transport Systems."
Fujitsu Microelectronics has launched a new family of dual - RF and IF - phase-locked loops (PLLs) for use in 2.5G and 3G mobile phones.
In some cases, the use of crystal filters or phase-locked loops can be used to reduce the noise.
Six new free-running reference oscillators generate a highly stable and accurate output frequency response with low phase noise and spurious performance levels, making them suitable for use in phase-locked loops, function generators, and frequency synthesizers as well as in receivers for communication, radar, navigation, surveillance, and test and measurement applications.
The devices feature an architecture of three phase-locked loops (PLLs), each of which is individually programmable and allows up to three (5P35021) or six (5P35023) unique frequency outputs.

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