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an elementary, distinct genetic trait that is distinguishable in the phenotype of a given individual. The term was introduced in 1909 by the Danish geneticist W. Johannsen. Beginning in the 1960’s, it has been used in studies on population zoology and population botany to designate characters (markers) of the genotypic composition of populations, an approach permitting a genetic analysis of those species whose genetic investigation would otherwise be difficult or impossible. The isolation and classification of phenes is a major trend of research in genetics and population biology. The study of the distribution of phenes within populations and species is the task of phenogeography.


Timofeev-Resovskii, N. V., and A. V. Iablokov. “Feny, fenetika i evoliutsionnaia biologiia.” Priroda, 1973, no. 5.
Johannsen, W. Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre mit Grundzügen der biologischen Variationsstatistik, 3rd ed. Jena, 1926.


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Because countries vary in their work force's knowledge bases and competence criteria (Lam 1997) and in what is considered valuable in terms of knowledge (Tallman and Phene 2007), cross-border knowledge vis-a-vis domestic knowledge is more likely to be ignored.
A key capability that enables innovation is learning (Azadegan and Dooley 2010; Khazanchi, Lewis, and Boyer 2007; Phene and Almeida 2008).
The new owner, Clive Watson, told the Kensington and Chelsea Chronicle: "The Phene is a very special pub and we intend to keep it as such.
The hunky playboy made his way down to The Phene Arms.
Bridget Harris, 69, and her husband Cliff, 66 - who used to drink with Best in the Phene Arms in Chelsea - were also there to pay their respects.
by 32mm long) containing a heating element and thermocouple (Campbell Scientific # 229, Phene et al.
Almeida and Phene demonstrate how attributes of the host country and MNC influence the subsidiary's innovativeness, and show that a subsidiary's knowledge linkages to other firms in the host country improve its innovative capability.
The bust-up began on Christmas Eve after Alex met Best at his former local The Phene Arms in Chelsea, West London.
A regular at the Phene Arms said: "It's not a way of life with George - it's a way of death.
Despite his weeks of sobriety, Best is still a regular at his favourite pub, the Phene Arms near his home.
The manager of the Phene Arms in Chelsea, where Best is a regular, said he was last seen at the pub three days ago.
Phene, director at the Water Management Research Laboratory.