Phenocopy


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Related to Phenocopy: genocopy, Genetic heterogeneity

phenocopy

[¦fēn·ə¦käp·ē]
(genetics)
The nonhereditary alteration of a phenotype to a form imitating a mutant trait; caused by external conditions during development.

Phenocopy

 

a nonhereditary change in a phenotype, induced by specific environmental conditions and mimicking of some known hereditary change, or mutation, as exhibited in the phenotype. For example, nonhereditary teratism, or monstrosities, may be induced in the genetically normal embryos and larvae of some insects by various means, including high temperatures and vaporized ether; examples of such monstrosities, which may be observed in adult individuals, are a change in the number of legs or wings or the transformation of antennae into legs. These monstrosities are phenocopies of similar but hereditary changes that normally develop, in the absence of any external influence, in a number of mutant insect strains.

Phenocopies of various mutuations may be experimentally induced in other species of animals and plants as well. As a rule, the possible range of such phenocopies is not determined by the nature of the operative factor, but rather by the stage of development of the experimental organism. Presumably, some external factor that produces phenocopies in normal individuals interferes with the activity of the corresponding normal genes, resulting in the appearance of a mutant phenotype. The study of phenocopies is thus an important field of inquiry for phenogenetic research.

REFERENCES

Lobashev, M. E. Genetika. Leningrad, 1967.
Goldschmidt, R. B. Physiological Genetics. New York, 1938.

V. I. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Ryu et al., "Brugada phenocopy: new terminology and proposed classification," Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol.
Not All Brugada Electrocardiogram Patterns are Brugada Syndrome or Brugada Phenocopy. Balkan Med J 2017;34:593
SGPL1 disruption in T cells resulted in modest accumulation of T cells in the thymus and an increase in thymic S1P levels but did not phenocopy the severe thymic egress defect and peripheral lymphopenia observed in [SPL.sup.Mx1KO] mice [140].
Other important factors potentially influencing both the success of later-phase clinical trials and the ultimate utilization of therapies for AUD are the individual variations in treatment responses (which result from pharmacogenetic factors) and the heterogeneity in the diagnosis of AUD (phenocopy).
Moore, "Power of multifactor dimensionality reduction for detecting gene-gene interactions in the presence of genotyping error, missing data, phenocopy, and genetic heterogeneity," Genetic Epidemiology, vol.
We focused on the ability of compounds to phenocopy RNAi reductionof-function germ line phenotypes of proteasome subunits and known proteasome inhibitors, such as altering the expression of a germ line transgene, disruption of nuclear morphology, and induction of apoptosis.
Inhibition of Jagged-mediated Notch signaling disrupts zebrafish biliary development and generates multi-organ defects compatible with an Alagille syndrome phenocopy. Development 2004; 131(22): 5753-5766.
ZnT3 knockout mice, who have synaptic zinc deficiency, seem to be "a phenocopy for the synaptic and memory deficits of AD." (58) These authors found that ZnT3 levels decrease in the brains of aging humans but decrease even further in the brains of aging AD patients.
That similarity - technically called a phenocopy - clearly shows that Lys05 works by interfering with the recycling system in cells.
That similarity -- technically called a phenocopy -- clearly shows that Lys05 works by interfering with the recycling system in cells.
Adaptation and intelligence: Organic selection and phenocopy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press (Originally published in French, 1974).