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Philadelphia Orchestra,founded 1900 by Fritz Scheel, who was its conductor until his death in 1907. Scheel was followed by Karl Pohlig (1907–12). Under the leadership (1912–38) of Leopold StokowskiStokowski, Leopold
, 1882–1977, American conductor, b. London. Stokowski studied in England and at the Paris Conservatory. He was organist and choirmaster at St. Bartholomew's Church, New York City (1905–8), and was conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony
..... Click the link for more information. , the orchestra became one of the world's finest ensembles. Eugene OrmandyOrmandy, Eugene
, 1899–1985, American conductor, b. Budapest. At the age of five Ormandy entered the Budapest Conservatory, where he studied the violin. Graduating in 1914, he became a member of the faculty.
..... Click the link for more information. , who was appointed co-conductor with Stokowski in 1936 and helped to further refine the lush and distinctive "Philadelphia sound," was music director from 1938 to 1980. He was replaced as director by Riccardo MutiMuti, Riccardo
, 1941–, Italian conductor. Principal conductor of the Maggio Musicale (1969–81) in Florence and of the Philharmonia Orchestra (1973–82) in London, he became (1977) principal guest conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra and succeeded (1980)
..... Click the link for more information. , who in turn was succeeded by Wolfgang SawallischSawallisch, Wolfgang,
1923–2013, German conductor, b. Munich. A specialist in the classical German repertoire, Sawallisch began conducting as a teenager. After World War II, he became a coach at the opera house in Augsburg, and made his debut as a conductor there in 1947.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1993. Christoph EschenbachEschenbach, Christoph,
1940–, German conductor and pianist, b. Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), as Christoph Ringmann. Orphaned during World War II, he was adopted by Wallydore Eschenbach, his mother's cousin, who taught him piano.
..... Click the link for more information. was music director from 2003 to 2008; Charles Dutoit was appointed chief conductor (2008–12) after Eschenbach's departure, and Yannick Nézet-Séguin became music director in 2012. The orchestra played in the Academy of Music (opened 1857), a national historic landmark, until 2001, when Verizon Hall in the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts opened. It has toured extensively in the United States and abroad. Since the 1930s it has played summer seasons at Robin Hood Dell in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, where it now performs at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts. It has also had a summer schedule at the Performing Arts Center in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., since 1966.
See study by H. Kupferberg (1969).