(also Philiki Etairia; Friendly Society), a secret nationalist organization of Greek patriots that from 1814 to 1821 waged a struggle for the liberation of Greece from the Ottoman yoke. The society, much of whose structure was borrowed from the Carbonari and Masons, was founded in Odessa by the Greek patriots N. Skouphas, E. Xanthos, and A. Tsakalov. Its headquarters were moved to Istanbul in 1818.
Philike Hetairia was active in Greece, as well as in parts of Turkey and in the Greek emigrant community in Western Europe. It included artisans, tradesmen, merchants, intellectuals, leaders of the Klephts and Armateles, and several prominent Phanariots. In 1820, A. Ypsilantis became the leader of the organization. Philike Hetairia paved the way for the Greek War of Independence of 1821–29. Shortly after the start of the wars, the organization disintegrated.