Philip Augustus, Henri IV, Louis Napoleon, and Charles de Gaulle receive plaudits for their contributions to the city's development, while Napoleon I receives a somewhat mixed review: praise for building the Ourcq canal and the quais along the Seine; praise for introducing the system for numbering Paris streets and censure for so many unfinished projects and monuments (the rue de Rivoli, the Palais de Chaillot, and the Arc de Triomphe).
Ever aware of the longue duree, however, Jones puts the myth of modernity firmly in its place, reminding us that Paris has been "mythically modem" ever since the time of Philip Augustus: the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment were all golden ages of Parisian modernity.
Baldwin in his article "The Capetian Court at Work under Philip Augustus," in The Medieval Court in Europe, ed.
When Philip Augustus left for the Third Crusade, he issued the Ordinance of 1190, which radically changed the structure of his government by detaching "the two major governmental functions, finance and justice, from his itinerant court and stabilized them in Paris" (Baldwin, "Capetian Court" 76).
In the text, Conon reports how the king, Philip Augustus, had drawn attention to his Picard accent (or perhaps his Picard diction), his mots d'Artois. From the last decades of the 12th century onwards we can trace the rise of `the King's French', the language of Paris, St Denis and the king's court with its home in the royal domain of the Ile-de-France. This dialect, now called Francien, has much in common with the neighbouring dialects of Picard and Champenois, and may have risen to pre-eminence not merely because of its association with the court but also because of its ability to serve as a supra-regional standard, sharing more with adjacent dialects than they did with one another.
The importance of `the King's French' in the later 12th and 13th centuries brings us back to King Philip Augustus and the list of knights banneret where so many trouvere names may be found (illus.3).
For we now have in a hand a new text, only recently discovered at the Musee Conde in Chantilly, which represents the earliest example of royal historiography in Old French known at present and which was composed between 1217 and 1237, that is, around the same time as the Anonymous of Bethune's Chronique and at precisely that moment when the long thrust toward the recovery of royal power was brought to brilliant fruition by Philip Augustus
Is he to be anathematised for rebelling against his father, Henry II, in alliance with Philip Augustus
, destined to prove his bitterest and most unscrupulous opponent?
Furthermore the French king Philip Augustus
, 1179-1293, one of Western Europe's most astute and opportunist monarchs, had constantly sought to exploit his position as Henry and Richard's feudal overlord to undermine their position as Duke of Normandy.
The special place that Philip Augustus
holds in French history is due chiefly to his spectacular victory over France's mortal enemies at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, a triumph that secured the Capetian dynasty on the throne and laid the foundations of the modem French state.
Edward III, Henry V and Philip Augustus
were all employing the same strategy: using hunger as a weapon for siege warfare.
The culmination of his argument is that the French state was in effective existence by the time of Philip Augustus
. His account of how this came about in the ten generations from 987 combines, intricately, the conventional and the original.