Philip V


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Philip V

(Philip the Tall), c.1294–1322, king of France (1317–22), son of King Philip IVPhilip IV
(Philip the Fair), 1268–1314, king of France (1285–1314), son and successor of Philip III. The policies of his reign greatly strengthened the French monarchy and increased the royal revenues.
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. He became regent in 1316 on the death of his brother Louis XLouis X,
Fr. Louis le Hutin
[the quarrelsome], 1289–1316, king of France (1314–16), son and successor of Philip IV. His reign was dominated by his uncle, Charles of Valois, and was distinguished by his concessions to the barons in the form of charters.
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, who was survived by his pregnant wife and infant daughter. On the death of John IJohn I
or John the Posthumous,
1316, king of France, posthumous son of King Louis X. He lived only five days and was succeeded by his uncle, Philip V. According to legend, a dying child was substituted for John, who was then brought up by a merchant in Siena.
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 (1316), the posthumous son of Louis, Philip took the crown for himself in the absence of a direct male heir and was crowned (1317) king. This helped to establish the Salic lawSalic law
, rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family.
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 in France, which excluded females from the royal succession. Philip's reign was notable for his frequent consultations of national assemblies and for his administrative, judiciary, and military reforms. He was succeeded by his brother, Charles IVCharles IV
(Charles the Fair), 1294–1328, king of France (1322–28), youngest son of Philip IV, brother and successor of Philip V. Charles continued his brother's work of strengthening the royal power.
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.

Philip V,

238–179 B.C., king of Macedon (221–179), son of Demetrius IIDemetrius II,
d. 229 B.C., king of Macedon (239–229 B.C.), son of Antigonus II. His reign was a confusion of wars and invasions, mostly concerned with possession of Epirus. The Aetolian League and the Achaean League united against him and defeated him. His heir was his son Philip V.
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, successor of Antigonus IIIAntigonus III
(Antigonus Doson) , d. 221 B.C., king of Macedon. On the death of Demetrius II he became regent for Demetrius' son Philip (Philip V). He married the widow of Demetrius, and in 227 he proclaimed himself king.
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. He won fame in a war in Greece (220–217), in which he sided with the Achaean LeagueAchaean League
, confederation of cities on the Gulf of Corinth. The First Achaean League, about which little is known, was formed presumably before the 5th cent. B.C. and lasted through the 4th cent. B.C. Its purpose was mutual protection against pirates.
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 against the Spartans and the Aetolian LeagueAetolian League,
confederation centering in the cities of Aetolia. It was formed in the 4th cent. B.C. and began to gain power in the 3d cent. in opposing the Achaean League and the Macedonians.
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. When Italy was weakened by HannibalHannibal
, b. 247 B.C., d. 183 or 182 B.C. Carthaginian general, an implacable and formidable enemy of Rome. Although knowledge of him is based primarily on the reports of his enemies, Hannibal appears to have been both just and merciful. He is renowned for his tactical genius.
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's invasion, Philip tried to take the Roman holdings in Illyria, and he made (215) a treaty with Hannibal. This began the First Macedonian War with Rome (215–205), which ended favorably for Macedon. Philip collaborated (202) with Antiochus IIIAntiochus III
(Antiochus the Great), d. 187 B.C., king of Syria (223–187 B.C.), son of Seleucus II and younger brother of Seleucus III, whom he succeeded. At his accession the Seleucid empire was in decline.
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 to expand in the Aegean by plundering the territorial possessions of Ptolemy VPtolemy V
(Ptolemy Epiphanes) , d. 180 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (205–180 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty, son of Ptolemy IV. He succeeded to the throne as a small boy, and his reign began with disastrous civil wars.
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. However, the frightened states of Rhodes and Pergamum coaxed Rome into entering the Second Macedonian War (200). This ended when Titus Quinctius Flamininus decisively defeated (197) Philip at Cynoscephalae (now Khalkodhónion). From then on Philip collaborated with the Romans. He faced constant Roman interference, however, because of accusations against him from his neighbors. Philip extended his influence in the Balkans by three attacks on that region in 184, 183, and 181. His main efforts during this period were directed at rebuilding his kingdom. He was succeeded by his son PerseusPerseus,
c.212–166 B.C., last king of Macedon (179–168 B.C.), son and successor of Philip V. He intrigued against his younger brother, Demetrius, eventually bringing about the latter's execution by Philip V.
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.

Bibliography

See biography by F. W. Walbank (1940, repr. 1967).


Philip V,

1683–1746, king of Spain (1700–1746), first Bourbon on the Spanish throne. A grandson of Louis XIVLouis XIV,
1638–1715, king of France (1643–1715), son and successor of King Louis XIII. Early Reign

After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin.
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 of France, he was titular duke of Anjou before Charles IICharles II,
1661–1700, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1665–1700), son and successor of Philip IV. The last of the Spanish Hapsburgs, he was physically crippled and mentally retarded.
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 of Spain designated him as his successor. Louis XIV accepted the Spanish throne for his grandson and thus precipitated the War of the Spanish SuccessionSpanish Succession, War of the,
1701–14, last of the general European wars caused by the efforts of King Louis XIV to extend French power. The conflict in America corresponding to the period of the War of the Spanish Succession was known as Queen Anne's War (see French and
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 (1701–14), which severely reduced Spanish power. The peace treaties (see Utrecht, Peace ofUtrecht, Peace of,
series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession. It put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire. By the treaty between England and France (Apr.
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) left Spain its colonial empire, but forced it to cede the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, Milan, and Naples to Austria and Sicily to Savoy. For having sided with Philip's chief rival in the war, Archduke Charles (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles VICharles VI,
1685–1740, Holy Roman emperor (1711–40), king of Bohemia (1711–40) and, as Charles III, king of Hungary (1712–40); brother and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I. Charles was the last Holy Roman emperor of the direct Hapsburg line.
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), Philip deprived Catalonia, Aragón, and Valencia of most of their autonomous privileges.

Of an indolent and melancholy disposition, Philip was dominated by women. At first the princesse des UrsinsUrsins, Marie Anne de la Trémoille, princesse des
, 1642–1722, French noblewoman and unofficial diplomat. After the death of her first husband, she married (1675) Duke Flavio Orsini, whose name was gallicized into Ursins. She soon separated from her husband.
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, lady in waiting to Philip's first consort, Maria Luisa of Savoy, dominated his court. In 1714, Philip married Elizabeth FarneseElizabeth Farnese
, 1692–1766, queen of Spain, second consort of Philip V; niece of Antonio Farnese, duke of Parma. Soon after her marriage (1714), arranged by Cardinal Alberoni and the princesse des Ursins, she gained a strong influence over her weak husband and for some
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, who took complete control of her husband's policies and who was in turn dominated by the chief minister, Cardinal AlberoniAlberoni, Giulio
, 1664–1752, Italian statesman in Spanish service, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Appointed (1713) representative of the duke of Parma at the court of Philip V of Spain, Alberoni gained influence and ultimately became de facto prime minister.
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. The attempt by the queen and Alberoni to reconquer the former Spanish territories in Italy led to the formation of the Quadruple AllianceQuadruple Alliance,
any of several European alliances. The Quadruple Alliance of 1718 was formed by Great Britain, France, the Holy Roman emperor, and the Netherlands when Philip V of Spain, guided by Cardinal Alberoni, sought by force to nullify the peace settlements reached
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 of 1718, to which Spain had to submit in 1720. In 1724, Philip abdicated the throne of Spain to his eldest son, Louis, but resumed it later that year after Louis died of smallpox.

Spain's foreign policy continued to be governed to a large extent by dynastic ambition and became successful so far as the house of BourbonBourbon
, European royal family, originally of France; a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.
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 was concerned. In the War of the Polish SuccessionPolish Succession, War of the,
1733–35. On the death (1733) of Augustus II of Poland, Stanislaus I sought to reascend the Polish throne. He was supported by his son-in-law, Louis XV of France.
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 (1733–35) Naples and Sicily passed to Don Carlos (later Charles IIICharles III,
1716–88, king of Spain (1759–88) and of Naples and Sicily (1735–59), son of Philip V and Elizabeth Farnese. Recognized as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1731, he relinquished the duchies to Austria after Spain reconquered (1734) Naples and Sicily in
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 of Spain), son of Philip and Elizabeth; in the War of the Austrian SuccessionAustrian Succession, War of the,
1740–48, general European war. Causes of the War

The war broke out when, on the strength of the pragmatic sanction of 1713, the Austrian archduchess Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, as ruler
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 (1740–48) Parma and Piacenza passed to Charles's younger brother Philip. Spain's entry into the War of the Austrian Succession was preceded (1739) by the outbreak of the War of Jenkins's EarJenkins's Ear, War of,
1739–41, struggle between England and Spain. It grew out of the commercial rivalry of the two powers and led to involvement in the larger War of the Austrian Succession.
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 with Great Britain. In 1733 the first Franco-Spanish Family CompactFamily Compact,
several alliances between France and Spain in the form of agreements between the French and Spanish branches of the Bourbon family. The first of the three compacts, the Treaty of the Escorial (1733), was continued and extended by the second agreement (1743).
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 was concluded. Under Philip, Spain began to recover from the economic stagnation of the 17th cent., especially after the rise (1743) of the reforming minister EnsenadaEnsenada, Zenón de Somodevilla, marqués de la
, 1702–81, Spanish statesman. He was created (1736) marquis for his part in the expedition to Naples that placed King Philip V's son, Carlos (later Charles III of Spain), on the Neapolitan throne.
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. Philip was succeeded by Ferdinand VIFerdinand VI,
b. 1712 or 1713, d. 1759, king of Spain (1746–59), son of Philip V by his first queen, Marie Louise of Savoy. When Ferdinand succeeded his father, his stepmother, Elizabeth Farnese, lost her power at court and went into retirement.
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, his son by Maria Luisa.

Bibliography

See biography by H. Kamen (2001).

Philip V

1683--1746, king of Spain (1700--46) and founder of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. His accession began the War of Spanish Succession (1701--13)