Philip of Hesse

Philip of Hesse

(hĕs), 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation. He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. Declared of age in 1518, he helped suppress the Peasants' WarPeasants' War,
1524–26, rising of the German peasants and the poorer classes of the towns, particularly in Franconia, Swabia, and Thuringia. It was the climax of a series of local revolts that dated from the 15th cent.
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. Having embraced Protestantism in 1524 he vainly tried to reconcile Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis

Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
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 and Ulrich ZwingliZwingli, Huldreich or Ulrich
, 1484–1531, Swiss Protestant reformer. Education of a Reformer
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, but finally signed the Lutheran Augsburg Confession (see creedcreed
[Lat. credo=I believe], summary of basic doctrines of faith. The following are historically important Christian creeds.

1 The Nicene Creed, beginning, "I believe in one God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and
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). With John Frederick I of Saxony and others, Philip formed (1531) the Schmalkaldic LeagueSchmalkaldic League
, alliance formed in 1531 at Schmalkalden by Protestant princes and delegates of free cities. It was created in response to the threat (1530) by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to stamp out Lutheranism.
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 to uphold Protestantism against the opposition of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Philip founded the first Protestant university (Marburg, 1527), helped Ulrich, the deposed Protestant duke of Württemberg, to recover his duchy, and otherwise did much to advance Lutheranism. However, the scandal following his bigamous marriage (1540), which had been reluctantly sanctioned by Luther and Philip MelanchthonMelanchthon, Philip
, 1497–1560, German scholar and humanist. He was second only to Martin Luther as a figure in the Lutheran Reformation. His original name was Schwarzerd [Ger.,=black earth; "melanchthon" is the Greek rendering of "black earth"].
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, led him to make peace with Charles in 1541. The peace was only temporary, and after Charles V had won MauriceMaurice,
1521–53, duke (1541–47) and elector (1547–53) of Saxony. A member of the Albertine branch of the ruling house of Saxony, he became duke of Albertine Saxony during the Protestant Reformation.
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 of Saxony from Philip's camp, the emperor crushed (1547) the Schmalkaldic League at Mühlberg. Philip, believing that he would be well treated, surrendered. He emerged (1552) from prison a broken man. In 1567 he divided his lands among his four sons (see HesseHesse
, Ger. Hessen, state (1994 pop. 5,800,000), 8,150 sq mi (24,604 sq km), central Germany. Wiesbaden is the capital. It is bounded by Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in the south, Rhineland-Palatinate in the west, North Rhine–Westphalia and Lower Saxony in
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).

Hesse, Philip of:

see Philip of HessePhilip of Hesse
, 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation. He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. Declared of age in 1518, he helped suppress the Peasants' War.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
References in periodicals archive ?
Far from pivoting smoothly in its diplomacy, the League was divided and even hobbled by differences between Philip of Hesse, who was often open to English initiatives, and John Frederick of Saxony, for whom orthodoxy needed to precede negotiations, much less alliance.
John Frederick was commonly reported to have openly indulged, during his unruly sojourn in Wolfenbuttel, in the 'unnatural practices' which Philip of Hesse said "were habitual to him".
In the summer of 1546 John Frederick and Philip of Hesse, having spent some years bullying and ransacking various small principalities, perceived that they had drawn themselves and the Schmalkaldic League into open war with the Emperor.
The reason for the suppression: Lorich was a Lutheran pastor with a chair at Marburg, "the first Protestant university, founded by Philip of Hesse, leader of a league of princes who rebelled against Charles V" (ci).
And the man who was so critical of the moral failings of popes and cardinals counseled Philip of Hesse to become a bigamist--a civil crime--and then lie about it rather than divorce his wife.
For example, the difficult discussion of Bucer's complicated and changing attitudes toward the martial situations of Henry VIII and Philip of Hesse reveals well his reluctance to recommend divorce.
Charles took the initiative in July 1546 by outlawing two of the leading members of the Schmalkaldic League of German Protestant princes, Philip of Hesse (whose bigamous marriage had already caused embarrassment to Luther) and the Elector of Saxony, John Frederick, and placing them under the Ban of the Empire.
Both armies were relatively modest in size -- around 10,000 on each side -- but the outcome of the brief battle was decisive; Charles V's troops took light casualties -- less than a hundred dead -- while the Schmalkaldic League suffered far worse losses, and crucially both Philip of Hesse and John Frederick of Saxony were captured.
Robert von Friedeburg compares the policies of Philip of Hesse in the first half of the sixteenth century with that of his grandson, Maurice of Hesse-Kassel; both aimed to cut a prominent figure in the empire, both thought of the prince as an autonomous figure within it, and neither was concerned to construct a modern state.
His microstudies of the political settings and publication histories of some three dozen separate treatises, by Luther, Melanchthon, Bucer, Cochlaeus, Nausea, Witzel, and the governments of Philip of Hesse, John Frederick of Saxony, and Heinrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbuttel, as well as others.
58] While some consequences followed -- in Neumark, the right to safe conduct for Jews was withdrawn, and from Philip of Hesse and in Elect oral Saxony, new measures were introduced specifically citing Luther's tract -- Luther's views were not universally appreciated.