Philip(redirected from Philip the Fair)
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Philip, Roman emperor
Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea
Philip, chief of the Wampanoags
Philip(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
The fictional ghost Philip Aylesford, created in 1972, has become one of the most important characters in evaluating claims of paranormal contacts by Spiritualists, New Agers, and others. Philip made his appearance in a group assembled by parapsychologists who had assembled eight people to participate in a series of séances. The group began their work by creating a fictional character and composing a biography for him.
Philip was supposedly a British aristocrat who lived in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was a royalist during the period of the Commonwealth and a Catholic at a time England was controlled by Protestant Puritans. His wife, Dorothea, was a beautiful woman, but somewhat distant and sexually unexciting. Philip found some diversion in the arms of a gypsy woman whom he installed in a house on his estate, Diddington Manor. His wife discovered his tryst and accused the gypsy of witchcraft, leading to her trial and execution. In remorse, Philip committed suicide.
Once his life was sketched out, the group began to attempt to contact Philip. After some time at which they built a group consciousness of Philip, the group began to hold séances as they imagined a Spiritualist might do. Within a short time, Philip began to manifest, initially responding with table raps. Whoever made the rapping sounds claimed to be Philip Aylesford. Among other things, he began to fill in details of his life. He also moved the table around. While the information from Philip was rather mundane, the psychokinetic effects with the table were extraordinary. The experiment was concluded with a public séance that was filmed. Philip rapped on the table, moved it about, changed the lighting in the room, and levitated the table.
The results of the Philip séances and the activity of the fictional spirit remains one of the most important references in evaluating the source of other extraordinary phenomena, especially those assigned to nonhuman entities. The experiment suggested that a small group of people can produce among themselves (quite apart from fraud or stage magic) some unique and unusual phenomena of the type that has on a number of occasions been ascribed to supernatural forces.
Philip II (Philip Augustus). Born Aug. 21, 1165, in Paris; died July 14, 1223, in Mantes. King from 1180.
Philip substantially increased the royal domains. From 1189 to 1191 he was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade. He used marriages to further his goal of territorial expansion. However, his repudiation of his second wife, a Danish princess, led to his excommunication by Pope Innocent III in 1200. Between 1202 and 1204, Philip won Normandy, Maine, Anjou, part of Poitou, and, finally, Touraine from the English king John Lackland. Ultimately, he forced John to acknowledge by treaty in 1206 the loss of most of the Plantagenets’ holdings in France. In 1214, Philip secured his gains by defeating the English in the battle of La Roche-aux-Moines in Anjou and their allies, including the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, at the battle of Bouvines in Flanders. Within his realm, Philip introduced a number of administrative and financial reforms: he organized new administrative districts called prévôtés and bailliages, created the Royal Council and broadened the functions of the legists.
Philip IV (Philip the Fair). Born in 1268, in Fontainebleau; died there Nov. 29, 1314. King of France from 1285; also king of Navarre (from 1284) through his marriage to Navarre’s queen.
Philip enlarged the royal domains with Angoumois in 1308 and the Lyonnais in 1312. His struggle with the English king for Guienne led to its occupation by the French in 1294, but it was returned to the English by a treaty in 1308. In 1300, Philip captured Flanders, thus precipitating a massive revolt in the Flemish cities (the Brugge Matins), which ended in the rout of the French at Courtrai in 1302. Despite Philip’s victory over the Flemings in 1304 near Mons-en-Pévèle, he was forced to relinquish his claims to the whole of Flanders. He kept only the southwestern part of the region and that only temporarily.
Philip needed money to conduct his wars and therefore often resorted to extraordinary taxes, forced loans, and currency debasement. In 1306 he banished the Jews from the kingdom and confiscated their property. He taxed the clergy and thus provoked a bitter conflict (1296–1303) with Pope Boniface VIII. Philip triumphed, with the result that the papacy became and for many years remained subservient to the French throne (seeBABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY). Philip destroyed the order of the Knights Templar by confiscating its enormous riches and persuading the pope to dissolve it in 1312. Philip also convened the first Estates General in order to marshal support among the feudal lords and the urban upper classes for his struggle against the pope.
In ancient Macedonia:
Philip II (Philip of Macedon). Born circa 382 B.C.; died 336. King from 359.
Philip II completed the unification of Macedonia into a single state in 359. He carried out a series of important reforms, which helped strengthen Macedonia politically, economically, and militarily; he organized a regular army and a strong navy, reorganized the cavalry, created the Macedonian phalanx, introduced a common monetary system, and instituted the issue of gold coins. Between 359 and 336 he conquered vast territories—first neighboring Paeonia and Thessaly and part of neighboring Illyria and then Chalcidice and other areas along the Aegean Sea. Epirus and Thrace also fell under Macedonian control. By 338, Philip had established Macedonia’s hegemony over Greece. He was in the midst of preparations to invade Persia when he was assassinated by palace conspirators.
REFERENCESMomigliano, A. Filippo il Macedone. Florence, 1934.
Chapot, V. Filippe IIde Macédoine. Paris, 1936.
Philip V. Born circa 238 B.C.; died 179. King from 220.
As a result of the First Macedonian War of 215–205, Rome conceded to Philip V a number of territories in Illyria, which had been under Roman rule from 229. In the Second Macedonian War of 200–197, he was defeated in the battle of Cynoscephalae (197) and was forced to relinquish the territories he had won.
REFERENCESWalbank, F. W. Philip V of Macedon. Cambridge, 1940.
Philip II. Born May 21, 1527, in Valladolid; died Sept. 13, 1598, at El Escorial. Hapsburg king from 1556.
After the abdication of Charles V and the division of the empire between Charles’ heirs, Philip became king of Spain, as well as master of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Netherlands, Franche-Comté, Milan, and colonies in America and Africa. Philip adopted a policy of absolutism. He deprived Aragon, Castile, and Catalonia of many liberties they had enjoyed during the Middle Ages, and he created an excessive bureaucratic apparatus. A fanatical Catholic, he supported the Inquisition: heretics were burned in great numbers, and the Moors, exiled between 1568 and 1570 to barren lands in the Spanish interior, were persecuted. Philip supported Mary Tudor, whom he had married in 1554, in her campaign of terror against the English Protestants.
In the Netherlands, Philip intensified feudal absolutist oppression, thus precipitating the Netherlands Bourgeois Revolution. After the Spanish defeated the French at the battle of St. Quentin in 1557, Philip concluded the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) with the French king. The treaty, which was to Spain’s benefit, ended the Italian Wars of 1494–1559 (seeITALIAN WARS OF 1494–1559). In 1571, Philip became head of the Holy League, which was formed by a number of states to fight the Turks. In 1581 he succeeded in annexing Portugal. Philip’s decision to invade England was prompted by the aid accorded by Queen Elizabeth of England to the Netherlands and the execution of Mary Stuart. The ignominious defeat of the Spanish Armada, which had been created for the invasion, undermined Spanish power.
During the Wars of Religion in France, Philip gave military aid to the Catholics, and in 1591 a Spanish garrison entered Paris. Philip tried to place his daughter Isabella on the French throne but was opposed by the Estates General of 1593. The Spanish troops were defeated by Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) at Fontaine-Française in June 1595. In 1598, Philip was forced to acknowledge Henry as king of France and to sign the treaty of Vervins (May 1598). The Spanish troops were expelled from France.
Philip needed money to wage his endless wars. To eliminate the government’s deficit, he increased taxes, including the alcabala, and confiscated gold, silver, and other goods arriving from America. The treasury, however, remained depleted. Philip declared state bankruptcy in 1557, 1575, and 1598, thus further disrupting Spain’s economy.
REFERENCESLucas-Dubreton, J. Philippe II. Paris, 1965.
L’Espagne au temps de Philippe II. Paris 1965.
Fernandez y Fernandez de Retana, España en tiempo de Felipe II, vols. 1–2. Madrid, 1966.
Philip III. Born Apr. 14, 1578, in Madrid; died there Mar. 31, 1621. Hapsburg king from 1598.
Philip’s favorite, the duke of Lerma, actually ruled (seeLERMA, FRANCISCO GÓMEZ DE SANDOVAL Y ROJAS, DUKE OF). Hoping to use the Tyrone and Tyrconnel uprising (1595–1603) to abet Spain’s struggle with England, Philip gave military aid to the Irish rebels. In 1604, however, he made peace with England. In 1609 he agreed to the 12-year truce with the Netherlands, by which he recognized the de facto independence of the Republic of the United Provinces.
Philip IV Born Apr. 8, 1605, in Valladolid; died Sept. 17, 1665, in Madrid. Hapsburg king from 1621.
Indifferent to state affairs, Philip was a mere pawn in the hands of his favorites, the count of Olivares (until 1643) and Don Luis Méndez de Haro (1643–1661). In 1648, Philip recognized the de jure independence of the Republic of the United Provinces. He ceded a number of territories to France by the Peace of the Pyrenees of 1659. His troops brutally quelled the Catalan uprising of 1640–52 (seeSEGADORES, WAR OF THE). Nonetheless, he was forced to acknowledge Catalan privileges, albeit with certain reservations. Philip refused to recognize the secession of Portugal in 1640, and until the end of his reign he strove to restore Spanish sovereignty by military force.