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Philip IV(Philip the Fair), 1268–1314, king of France (1285–1314), son and successor of Philip IIIPhilip III
(Philip the Bold), 1245–85, king of France (1270–85), son and successor of King Louis IX. He secured peaceful possession of Poitou, Auvergne, and Toulouse by a small cession (1279) to England.
..... Click the link for more information. . The policies of his reign greatly strengthened the French monarchy and increased the royal revenues. Philip asserted his right to tax the clergy for the defense of the realm, thus making permanent a special tax permitted by the popes for support of crusades. Pope Boniface VIIIBoniface VIII,
1235–1303, pope (1294–1303), an Italian (b. Anagni) named Benedetto Caetani; successor of St. Celestine V.
As a cardinal he was independent of the factions in the papal court, and he opposed the election of Celestine.
..... Click the link for more information. opposed this measure by the bull Clericis laicos (1296), but when threatened with loss of revenues from France he capitulated (1297). The conflict was revived by the arrest and condemnation by the king's court (1301) of Bishop Bernard SaissetSaisset, Bernard
, d. 1314, French churchman. In 1295 he became bishop of Pamiers (near Foix, S France). He was sent (1301) by Pope Boniface VIII as papal legate to King Philip IV of France to protest the king's anticlerical measures.
..... Click the link for more information. . Boniface demanded that Saisset be sent to Rome for trial, issued two bulls denouncing Philip, and called for a council at Rome in Nov., 1302. Philip, in retaliation, convoked the nobility, clergy, and commons in the first French States-GeneralStates-General
diet or national assembly in which the chief estates (see estate) of a nation—usually clergy, nobles, and towns (or commons)—were represented as separate bodies.
..... Click the link for more information. (1302–3) to hear a justification of his course of action; and Boniface issued (1302) the bull Unam sanctam, an extreme statement of his right to intervene in temporal and religious matters. Threatened by excommunication, Philip had Boniface seized at Anagni. Although freed, Boniface soon died (1303). After the brief pontificate of Benedict XI, Philip secured the election as pope of Clement VClement V,
1264–1314, pope (1305–14), a Frenchman named Bertrand de Got; successor of Benedict XI. He was made archbishop of Bordeaux by Boniface VIII, who trusted him; surprisingly, he was also in some favor at the court of Philip IV, even though Philip and the pope
..... Click the link for more information. , who annulled Boniface's bulls, and in 1309 transferred the papal residence to Avignon, thus beginning the "Babylonian captivity" of the papacypapacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
..... Click the link for more information. . Clement cooperated with Philip in his persecution of the Knights TemplarsKnights Templars
, in medieval history, members of the military and religious order of the Poor Knights of Christ, called the Knights of the Temple of Solomon from their house in Jerusalem.
..... Click the link for more information. , whose wealth the king appropriated to finance his wars. Other wealthy groups persecuted by Philip were the Jews and the Lombards (Italian bankers). Philip also debased the coinage. Between 1294 and 1296, Philip overran Guienne, the duchy of King Edward IEdward I,
1239–1307, king of England (1272–1307), son of and successor to Henry III. Early Life
By his marriage (1254) to Eleanor of Castile Edward gained new claims in France and strengthened the English rights to Gascony.
..... Click the link for more information. of England; in 1297 Edward came to the defense of his lands. A truce (1297) became (1303) a permanent peace, conceding Guienne to Edward. After the withdrawal of Edward, Philip turned his attention toward Flanders. He aided the Flemish towns against the count of Flanders, Guy of Dampierre, and after Guy's defeat (1300), he imposed French rule on the Flemish. They rebelled and defeated (1302) the French at the disastrous battle of Courtrai. Although Philip was victorious over the Flemish in 1304, he was forced, in subsequent treaties, to reduce his demands on them. Philip was more successful in his attempts to expand at the expense of the Holy Roman Empire; Lyons and Viviers were incorporated into France during his reign. Philip summoned the States-General twice more (1308, 1314), chiefly to obtain support for his warfare. His son, Louis XLouis X,
Fr. Louis le Hutin
[the quarrelsome], 1289–1316, king of France (1314–16), son and successor of Philip IV. His reign was dominated by his uncle, Charles of Valois, and was distinguished by his concessions to the barons in the form of charters.
..... Click the link for more information. , succeeded him.
See study by C. T. Wood (2d ed. 1971).
Philip IV,1605–65, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1621–65) and, as Philip III, king of Portugal (1621–40); son and successor of Philip IIIPhilip III,
1578–1621, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1598–1621) and, as Philip II, king of Portugal (1598–1621); son and successor of Philip II of Spain. He was as pious as his father, but lacked his intelligence and capacity for work.
..... Click the link for more information. of Spain. Philip IV was intelligent but lacked interest in the affairs of state, which were handled (until 1643) by the conde de OlivaresOlivares, Gaspar de Guzmán, conde-duque de
, 1587–1645, Spanish statesman. He was appointed chief minister on the accession (1621) of Philip IV, over whom he had earlier gained influence.
..... Click the link for more information. . During his reign, Spain continued to decline politically and economically. Spanish involvement in the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War
There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
..... Click the link for more information. increased as war was resumed (1621) in the Netherlands and fighting started (1622) with France over the ValtellinaValtellina
, Alpine valley of the upper Adda River, c.75 mi (120 km) long, in Lombardy, N Italy, extending from Lake Como to the Stelvio Pass. The main towns are Sondrio and Tirano. The valley is a fertile agricultural region, known for its wine.
..... Click the link for more information. question. The war with France continued after the Peace of Westphalia (1648), became complicated by Spanish intervention in the French FrondeFronde
, 1648–53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris (the chief judiciary body) to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of
..... Click the link for more information. , and ended (1659) with the humiliation of Spain (see Pyrenees, Peace of thePyrenees, Peace of the,
1659, treaty ending the warfare between France and Spain that, continuing after the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years War, had been complicated by French intervention in the revolt of the Catalans (1640–52) and by Spanish
..... Click the link for more information. ). The war gave Portugal the opportunity to revolt (1640). Catalonia also rose and was long occupied by the French. Spain had to recognize the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands at the Peace of Westphalia and lost Roussillon and part of the Spanish Netherlands to France at the Peace of the Pyrenees. Philip's daughter, Marie Thérèse, was married to Louis XIVLouis XIV,
1638–1715, king of France (1643–1715), son and successor of King Louis XIII. Early Reign
After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin.
..... Click the link for more information. of France. Thanks to the presence of VelázquezVelázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
, 1599–1660, b. Seville. He was the most celebrated painter of the Spanish school. Early Life and Work
..... Click the link for more information. at his court, Philip was probably one of the most frequently portrayed monarchs in history. He was also a patron of Rubens and Cano and was largely responsible for building up the royal collection of paintings, which later became the basis of the PradoPrado, Museo Nacional del
, Spanish national museum of painting and sculpture, in Madrid, one of the finest in Europe. Situated on the Paseo del Prado, it was begun by the architect Juan de Villanueva in 1785 for Charles III, as a museum of natural history, and finished under
..... Click the link for more information. Museum. Calderón de la Barca and Tirso de Molina continued the great tradition of Spanish drama during his reign. Philip was succeeded by his son, Charles IICharles II,
1661–1700, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1665–1700), son and successor of Philip IV. The last of the Spanish Hapsburgs, he was physically crippled and mentally retarded.
..... Click the link for more information. .
known as Philip the Fair. 1268--1314, king of France (1285--1314): he challenged the power of the papacy, obtaining the elevation of Clement V as pope residing at Avignon (the beginning of the Babylonian captivity of the papacy)