Philipp Melanchthon


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Related to Philipp Melanchthon: Andreas Karlstadt
Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Schwartzerdt
Birthday
BirthplaceBretten, near Karlsruhe
Died
Occupation
Theologian, professor

Melanchthon, Philipp

 

(Greek name of P. Schwartzerd). Born Feb. 16, 1497, in Bretten, Baden; died Apr. 19, 1560, in Wittenberg. German humanist and theologian; a leader of the Lutheran Reformation (the moderate burgher wing). Son of a gunsmith.

In 1518, Melanchthon was appointed professor of Greek at the University of Wittenberg, where he became Luther’s closest companion and friend. Melanchthon was an ardent opponent of the Peasant War of 1524–26; he likewise opposed T. Miintzer, and the Anabaptists. As a theorist of Lutheranism, he generalized the principles of Lutheran theology. (He compiled the Loci communes rerum theologicarum, 1521, and the Augsburg Confession, 1530.) After Luther died in 1546, Melanchthon became the head of Lutheranism. He was the author of many pedagogical essays and textbooks, and he was involved in the reorganization of the school and university systems in Saxony and other areas of Germany and the propagation of a classical education (for which he was called Praeceptor Germaniae, “the teacher of Germany”); in education, however, he subordinated humanist ideals to the interests of the Lutheran Church and the princes.

WORKS

Werke in Auswahl, vols. 1–7. Edited by R. Stupperich. Giitersloh, 1951–71.

REFERENCES

Stupperich, R. Melanchthon. Berlin, 1960.
Stern, L. P. Melanchthon: Humanist, Reformator, Praeceptor Germaniae. Halle, 1963.
References in periodicals archive ?
This composite work contains a pseudonymous preface by Frith and an English translation of a work by Luther and an English adaptation of a work by Philipp Melanchthon.
On the further use of the Melanchthonian model in sixteenth-century Lutheran theology, see Helmar Junghans, "Philipp Melanchthons Loci theologici und ihre Rezeption in deutschen Universitaten und Schulen," in Werk und Rezeption Philipp Melanchthons in Universitat und Schule bis ins 18.
Students and others came from all over Germany, eastern Europe, and Scandinavia to hear Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, who began teaching at Wittenberg on 29 August 1518.
Tinsley provides separate chapters analyzing Bayle's articles on five major Protestant reformers (Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, John Calvin, and Theodore Beza), six Protestant outsiders (Melchior Hoffman, Sebastian Franck, Sebastian Castellio, Bernardino Ochino, Francesco Stancaro, and Faustus Socinus), and two mutually contrasting Catholics (Desiderius Erasmus and Ignatius Loyola).
My own use of the term Zwinglian is also meant to signal a kind of influence through other, more mixed and moderate channels such as Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr, and at a greater distance, Johann Heinrich Bullinger and Philipp Melanchthon,
For example, in 1535 King Francis I asked the faculty's advice about a proposed colloquy, intended to promote religious union, with Philipp Melanchthon.
Universities and Gymnasia], it reliably informs the reader about all aspects of the higher education system in the German-speaking countries before, during and after the Reformation, describing with a wealth of detail the school system on the eve of the modern period, the gradual reception of humanism, the impact of the Reformation on thc higher school system as established by Philipp Melanchthon, the extraordinary impact of the Jesuits on education in the Catholic territories, noting reassuringly, however, that the differences between the Protestant and Catholic models of the "humanistische Gymnasium" were quite minimal.
Much of this had been done on behalf of his spiritual father, Philipp Melanchthon, who had done so much to win over the educated and civilized to the Reformation.
While Philipp Melanchthon may carry the title Praeceptor Germaniae, the accolade would not look ill-fitting on Johann Sturm (1507-1589).