Philipp Melanchthon

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Related to Philipp Melanchthon: Andreas Karlstadt
Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Schwartzerdt
BirthplaceBretten, near Karlsruhe
Theologian, professor
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Melanchthon, Philipp


(Greek name of P. Schwartzerd). Born Feb. 16, 1497, in Bretten, Baden; died Apr. 19, 1560, in Wittenberg. German humanist and theologian; a leader of the Lutheran Reformation (the moderate burgher wing). Son of a gunsmith.

In 1518, Melanchthon was appointed professor of Greek at the University of Wittenberg, where he became Luther’s closest companion and friend. Melanchthon was an ardent opponent of the Peasant War of 1524–26; he likewise opposed T. Miintzer, and the Anabaptists. As a theorist of Lutheranism, he generalized the principles of Lutheran theology. (He compiled the Loci communes rerum theologicarum, 1521, and the Augsburg Confession, 1530.) After Luther died in 1546, Melanchthon became the head of Lutheranism. He was the author of many pedagogical essays and textbooks, and he was involved in the reorganization of the school and university systems in Saxony and other areas of Germany and the propagation of a classical education (for which he was called Praeceptor Germaniae, “the teacher of Germany”); in education, however, he subordinated humanist ideals to the interests of the Lutheran Church and the princes.


Werke in Auswahl, vols. 1–7. Edited by R. Stupperich. Giitersloh, 1951–71.


Stupperich, R. Melanchthon. Berlin, 1960.
Stern, L. P. Melanchthon: Humanist, Reformator, Praeceptor Germaniae. Halle, 1963.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
All the major creative professors in various fields, from Andreas Vesalius (1514-64) and Giovanni da Monte (1489-1551), both of whom taught at the University of Padua in medicine, to Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), who taught mathematics at the universities of Pisa and Padua, plus Martin Luther (1483-1546) and Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) at the University of Wittenberg, had humanist training.
Although Copernicus had provided a new heliocentric system of the world in 1543, the dominant interpretation of his work in Northern Europe was developed by the students and colleagues of Philipp Melanchthon at the University of Wittenberg.
Tinsley provides separate chapters analyzing Bayle's articles on five major Protestant reformers (Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, John Calvin, and Theodore Beza), six Protestant outsiders (Melchior Hoffman, Sebastian Franck, Sebastian Castellio, Bernardino Ochino, Francesco Stancaro, and Faustus Socinus), and two mutually contrasting Catholics (Desiderius Erasmus and Ignatius Loyola).
G7v: Gardiner cites Philipp Melanchthon's warning to Oecolampadius.
For example, in 1535 King Francis I asked the faculty's advice about a proposed colloquy, intended to promote religious union, with Philipp Melanchthon. The Faculty of Theology pointed out the many doctrinal differences between Melanchthon and Catholicism, and counselled against the meeting, which n ever occurred.
Universities and Gymnasia], it reliably informs the reader about all aspects of the higher education system in the German-speaking countries before, during and after the Reformation, describing with a wealth of detail the school system on the eve of the modern period, the gradual reception of humanism, the impact of the Reformation on thc higher school system as established by Philipp Melanchthon, the extraordinary impact of the Jesuits on education in the Catholic territories, noting reassuringly, however, that the differences between the Protestant and Catholic models of the "humanistische Gymnasium" were quite minimal.
To dispel this misconception, Biot shows how Aneau adopts Philipp Melanchthon's philology and Clement Marot's esthetic, neither of which was obsolete or regressive in 1550, in order to challenge three main aspects ofDu Bellay's manifesto: its diffuse form; its attempt at defense and illustration, which, according to Aneau's most famous phrase, could more aptly be regarded as offense and denigration; and its overbearing indictment of French literary history.
Much of this had been done on behalf of his spiritual father, Philipp Melanchthon, who had done so much to win over the educated and civilized to the Reformation.
While Philipp Melanchthon may carry the title Praeceptor Germaniae, the accolade would not look ill-fitting on Johann Sturm (1507-1589).
Fuchsperger relied heavily on Philipp Melanchthon's Rhetoric.
On the further use of the Melanchthonian model in sixteenth-century Lutheran theology, see Helmar Junghans, "Philipp Melanchthons Loci theologici und ihre Rezeption in deutschen Universitaten und Schulen," in Werk und Rezeption Philipp Melanchthons in Universitat und Schule bis ins 18.