Philippine War of 1899–1901
Philippine War of 1899–1901
a colonial war waged by American imperialism against the Philippine Republic. In April 1898 the USA went to war against Spain to seize Cuba, the Philippines, and other Spanish colonies. In order to utilize the help of Philippine patriots who rose up in 1896 in a liberation insurrection against Spanish domination, American representatives concluded agreements on joint actions with the leaders of the insurgents, hypocritically promising to recognize the independence of the Philippines. During June-July 1898 the Philippine army forced the Spanish troops to capitulate almost throughout the archipelago; this capitulation secured the occupation of Manila for the American landing force. After this landing, the USA began openly to prepare the seizure of the Philippines. The government of the USA did not recognize the independent republic declared in the Philippines in 1898; on Dec. 10, 1898, the American government signed the Paris Peace Treaty with Spain, by which the Philippines were transferred to the USA. On Feb. 4, 1899, the American forces, with an overwhelming preponderance in numbers and especially in armament, initiated military operations against the republican army. At the same time, the American command attempted to exploit contradictions within the government of the Philippines in its own interests. On May 7, 1899, the bourgeois landlord leaders (E. Aguinaldo, president of the Republic; P. Paterno; and others), encouraged by the Americans, eliminated from power the democratic head of the republican government, A. Mabini; on July 5, 1899, they organized the murder of A. Luna, the commander in chief of the armed forces, who stood for uncompromising opposition to the aggressors. By early 1900, the regular republican army had dissolved into separate units and moved to partisan actions. The independent Philippine Republic in effect had ceased to exist. On their punitive expeditions, the Americans engaged in mass executions and torture of both prisoners of war and the peaceful population. News of these excesses produced indignation among the progressive public of the USA, which demanded that the troops be recalled from the Philippines. But the campaign of the “pacification” of the Philippines continued. On Mar. 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was taken captive. He swore allegiance to the USA and summoned all Filipinos to surrender. The popular partisan movement continued for a number of years, up to 1913 in certain areas.
REFERENCESGuber, A. A. Filippinskaia respublika 1898 g. i amerikanskii imperializm. Moscow, 1961.
Aguinaldo, E. Reseña verídica de la revolucón filipīna. Nueva Caceres, 1899.
Mabini, A. La revolución filipina. Manila, 1931.
Agoncillo, T. Malólos: The Crisis of the Republic. Quezon City, 1960.
G. I. LEVINSON