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(plôv`dĭf), anc. Philippopolis, city (1993 pop. 345,205), S central Bulgaria, on the Maritsa River. It is the second largest city of Bulgaria, a transportation hub, and the chief market for a fertile area. Plovdiv's major industries are food processing, brewing, and the manufacture of textiles, metal products, and carpets. Originally built by the Thracians, the city was captured in 341 B.C. by Philip II of Macedon, who named it Philippopolis and established a military post there. Known under Roman rule as Trimontium, it was the capital of Thracia. It was razed by the Goths but recovered after Byzantine Emperor Constantine V settled the Armenian PauliciansPaulicians
, Christian heretical sect. The sect developed in Armenia from obscure origins and is first mentioned in the middle of the 6th cent., where it is associated with Nestorianism.
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 there. Destroyed (early 13th cent.) by the Bulgarians, Plovdiv later became the center of the BogomilsBogomils
, members of Europe's first great dualist church, which flourished in Bulgaria and the Balkans from the 10th to the 15th cent. Their creed, adapted from the Paulicians and modified by other Gnostic and Manichaean sources, is attributed to Theophilus or Bogomil, a
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. It was occupied by the Greeks in 1262 and was captured by the Turks c.1360. The city passed to Russia in 1877 and became the capital of Eastern RumeliaRumelia
or Roumelia
, region of S Bulgaria, between the Balkan and Rhodope mts. Historically, Rumelia denoted the Balkan possessions (particularly Thrace and Macedonia, and excluding Bosnia) of the Ottoman Empire.
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 (1878–85); it was united with Bulgaria in 1885. Plovdiv is the seat of a Bulgarian Orthodox eparch and has several Orthodox churches and Turkish mosques, as well as a university and other higher educational institutions. The ancient town walls and gate still stand; remains of the Bishop's Basilica (5th cent.) were discovered in the 1980s.



a city in southern Bulgaria, on the Maritsa River. Picturesquely situated in the hills of the western part of the Upper Thracian Lowland, 25 km north of the Rhodope Mountains. Administrative center of Plovdiv District. Second largest city in Bulgaria; also second in economic and cultural importance. Population, 260,000 (1973).

A transportation junction, Plovdiv is an important center for the machine-building and electrotechnical industries. Local enterprises manufacture electric motors, electronic equipment, hydraulic machinery, and woodworking machines. The food and condiment industry is represented by enterprises that produce canned goods, sugar, and tobacco, and the textile industry, by plants that produce cotton cloth and silk. Other industries include the production of garments, footwear, glass, and pulp and paper and the processing of leather and furs. A growing chemical industry produces chemicals for agricultural uses, pharmaceuticals, and essential oils. Near the city is a large lead and zinc combine.

International trade fairs have been held in September since 1933. Educational establishments include medical, agricultural, and food-processing institutes. There are scientific research institutes for vegetable growing, fruit growing, and the food and condiment industry. Plovdiv has archaeological and ethnographic museums, a municipal art gallery, and drama and people’s amateur opera theaters.

Trimontium, the old section of Plovdiv, has an irregular layout. It was declared a historic district in 1956. Architectural monuments include remains of ancient fortifications, a minaret built in 1456, and the Dzhuma Mosque, which dates from the 15th to 16th century. Among numerous buildings from the Bulgarian Renaissance are the Church of St. Constantine and St. Helen, which dates from 1832 and has murals painted by Z. Zograf, and houses decorated with carving and painting. The latter include the Lamartine house and the Koumdzhioglu house, which was built in 1847 and is now the Ethnographic Museum. Since 1944, new residential areas have been built, as have the International Fair complex (1948–49), the Wedding Palace (1962), the Maritsa Hotel (1967), and the monument to the Soviet Army Alesha (1955–57, sculptor V. Radoslavov).


Plovdiv. [Album with text by S. Bosilkov.] Sophia, 1966. (Parallel texts in Bulgarian, Russian, German, English, and French.)
Plovdiv: Putevoditel. Sofia, 1960.
Iordanov, T. Plovdiv. Sofia, 1970.


a city in S Bulgaria on the Maritsa River: the second largest town in Bulgaria; conquered by Philip II of Macedonia in 341 bc; capital of Roman Thracia; commercial centre of a rich agricultural region. Pop.: 339 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The number of victims in the district of Philippopolis (Plovdiv) reached 15 000.
The city used to be called Philippopolis, after Philip II, who ruled this Thracian kingdom in the fourth century BC.
Contract award: "odeon in forum ancient philippopolis - restoration, exhibition and use.
Construction work of real cultural value of the Odeon in forum Ancient Philippopolis.
op1 - supervision of works on the subject: "odeon in forum ancient philippopolis - restoration, exhibition and use";
Contract notice: "odeon in forum ancient philippopolis - restoration, exhibition and use.
Contract award: "repair and reconstruction of the existing two-storey mixed-use building, part of the ancient stadium of philippopolis culturally - information centre / cic /, located in the city of plovdiv square" roman stadium "tsgts in pi 56784.
Contract notice: Repair and reconstruction of the existing two-storey mixed-use building, part of the ancient stadium of philippopolis culturally - information centre / cic /, located in the city of plovdiv square "roman stadium" in the al central city 56784.

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