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See his works, tr. by F. H. Colson and G. H. Whitaker (10 vol., 1929–42, Loeb Classical Library); E. R. Goodenough, Introduction to Philo Judaeus (2d ed. 1963).
(Philo of Alexandria). Born 21 or 28 B.C. in Alexandria; died there A.D. 41 or 49. Judaic and Hellenistic philosopher.
Philo’s philosophy was based on the concept of the absolute transcendence of God and the concept of Ideas of Plato and the Stoics. For Philo, God transcends the One and the Good of Plato; God is a true being absolutely without qualities. One can only say of Him that He is, not what He is. In his interpretation of the Platonic and Stoic concept of emanation, Philo taught that the Logos was the highest and most perfect creation of God, through which God created first the angels—the creatures closest to Himself—and then the world of things and man. Philo proposed a theory regarding man’s ecstatic ascendance to God.
In a number of respects, Philo differed from the Christians, but on the whole his ideas were so close to the Christian viewpoint that he received much attention in patristic literature.
WORKSOpera quae supersunt, vols. 1–7. Edited by L. Cohn and P. Wendland. Berlin, 1962–63.
In Russian translation:
“O zhizni sozertsatel’noi.” In N. T. Smirnov, Terapevty isoch. Filona ludeia “O zhizni sozertsatel’noi.” Kiev, 1909.
REFERENCESMarx, K., and F. Engels. Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 19, pp. 307–08.
Trubetskoi, S. N. Uchenie o Logose v ego istorii. Moscow, 1906. Pages 77–165.
Ivanitskii, F. V. Filon Aleksandriiskii: Zhizn’ i obzor literaturnoi deiatel’nosti. Kiev, 1911.
Istoriia filosofii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1940.
Wolfson, H. A. Philo, 2nd ed., vols. 1–2. Cambridge, Mass., 1948.
Bréhier, E. Les Idées philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie, 3rd ed. Paris, 1950.
Heinemann, I. Philons griechische und jüdische Bildung. Hildesheim, 1962.
A. F. LOSEV