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(fī`lō) or

Philo Judaeus

(jo͞odē`əs) [Lat.,=Philo the Jew], c.20 B.C.–c.A.D. 50, Alexandrian Jewish philosopher. His writings have had an enormous influence on both Jewish and Christian thought, and particularly upon the Alexandrian theologians Clement and Origen. All that is known of his life is that he was sent to Rome c.A.D. 40 to represent the Jews of Alexandria in seeking the restoration of privileges lost because they had refused to obey an imperial edict to worship Caligula. Philo was the first important thinker to attempt to reconcile biblical religion with Greek philosophy. In so doing he developed an allegorical interpretation of Scripture that enabled him to find many of the doctrines of Greek philosophy in the Torah (the Pentateuch). An eclectic and a mystic, Philo emphasized the total transcendence and perfection of God, and in order to account for creation and the relation between the infinite God and the finite world, he used the concept of the LogosLogos
[Gr.,=word], in Greek and Hebrew metaphysics, the unifying principle of the world. The central idea of the Logos is that it links God and man, hence any system in which the Logos plays a part is monistic. The Greek Heraclitus held (c.500 B.C.
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. Logos is the intermediary through which God's will acts and is thus the creative power that orders the world. Along with the Logos, Philo posited a whole realm of beings or potencies that bridge the gap between the Creator and his creation. Only fragments of Philo's works remain, but numerous quotations from his writings are found in early Christian literature.


See his works, tr. by F. H. Colson and G. H. Whitaker (10 vol., 1929–42, Loeb Classical Library); E. R. Goodenough, Introduction to Philo Judaeus (2d ed. 1963).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Contra Wolfson, see Alan Mendelson, Secular Education in Philo of Alexandria (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1982), p.
Topics covered range from Philo of Alexandria to Dutch Reformed, Arabic, and Judaic debates of the twentieth century.
Apart from Philo of Alexandria, a noteworthy but isolated exponent of a Hellenized Judaism, theology is notably absent in The Evolution of God.
In this chapter the author creates a long list of the ancient accusative or vituperative use of the label, and eventually, after passing through Philo of Alexandria and the Jewish experience, connects to 1 Tim.
Philo of Alexandria becomes a main source of information in this section.
For every trace of cave art, elephant hunt, porphyry, and quartz, of white chalk, snail shells, pigeon eggs, and oryxes, of jujubes, artichokes, marl, and gorge--for every hallucinatory vision of the Mount of Olives and Rachel's Tomb; of Roman forts, Crusader castles, and Muslim mosques; of Pliny the Elder, Philo of Alexandria, and Flavius Josephus; of "ritual immersion," "messianic theology," and the "formless ...
But ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria (20 BCE-50 CE) assumes that the boy is definitely culpable and deserves the death penalty for allowing himself to be penetrated, which means that he has transformed his male nature into a female nature.
In your July-August 2004 issue, Andrew Holleran refers in his review of Homosexuality and Civilization, by Louis Crompton, to "Christian figures like Saint Paul, Saint Augustine, John Chrysostom, and Philo of Alexandria."
David Runia ("The Beginnings of the End: Philo of Alexandria and Hellenistic Theology," in Frede and Laks, Traditions of Theology, 281-316) has shown how Philo of Alexandria marks "the beginning of the end" of Hellenistic theology, while emphasizing that it is not a matter of a new approach replacing an old one immediately and everywhere; here too what is at issue is a distinctively Platonist approach that would eventually prevail.
A third development leading to the loss of Sophia was the theology of first-century philosopher Philo of Alexandria. As a Jew, Philo was very familiar with Sophia.
(1.) Samuel Sandmel, Philo of Alexandria: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), p.