These recent colonizations represent ~5% of the increase in known breeding population and provide insight into the ability of these highly philopatric
seabirds to colonize new breeding territories.
Researchers have long thought that emperor penguins were philopatric
, which means they would return to the same location to nest each year.
males tend to disperse over longer distances than females among the natal breeding grounds (Leafloor 1998).
Male vireos are highly philopatric
, and it would be expected, according to the local-resource-competition model, that sex ratio would be female-biased.
2000) found that deer in high-density populations coincident with suburban areas were more philopatric
than those in low-density populations.
Production of the more dispersing sex may be favored in low-quality habitats, while the philopatric
sex would be favored in high-quality habitats (Julliard 2000; Leturque & Rousset 2003).
This result indicates highly philopatric
behavior among female bats, as has been confirmed in a recent mtDNA-based study of these colonies (J.
e ]but inversely correlated with dispersal of the philopatric
tana are a mixture of philopatric
residents and immigrants from other areas.
Relationships between inferred levels of gene flow and geographic distance in a philopatric
coral, Ballanophyllia elegans.
Greenwood (1980) and Dobson (1982) suggested that although females are philopatric
because of the advantage of securing resources in a familiar area, males, because of strong competition for females among polygynous and promiscuous species, tradeoff foraging efficiency for greater mating success by dispersing.
rufum to be extremely philopatric
over long periods (Gannon, 1991).