Alison (1977), in the only study to investigate the degree of philopatric
behavior, found that it occurred at a low rate at Churchill, Manitoba (4 of 26 marked subadults returned to their natal area the following year).
2001), we believe that most disappearances were of dispersing individuals and our categorisation of status as philopatric
or dispersed is valid.
reproduction, a prime mover in the evolution of termite sociality?
2000) found that deer in high-density populations coincident with suburban areas were more philopatric
than those in low-density populations.
Coatis are highly philopatric
, and the majority of the adult members are relatively close genetically, although unrelated individuals can occasionally come into the group (McClearn, 1992; Gompper, 1997; Gompper and Decker, 1998).
Production of the more dispersing sex may be favored in low-quality habitats, while the philopatric
sex would be favored in high-quality habitats (Julliard 2000; Leturque & Rousset 2003).
This result indicates highly philopatric
behavior among female bats, as has been confirmed in a recent mtDNA-based study of these colonies (J.
e ]but inversely correlated with dispersal of the philopatric
Conversely, uninflated males have access to a more limited number of similarly philopatric
females, but have twice as much time in which to locate a mate.
tana are a mixture of philopatric
residents and immigrants from other areas.
Greenwood (1980) and Dobson (1982) suggested that although females are philopatric
because of the advantage of securing resources in a familiar area, males, because of strong competition for females among polygynous and promiscuous species, tradeoff foraging efficiency for greater mating success by dispersing.
Nevertheless, perhaps the most important factor in the long term--and which led almost to the right whale's extinction--is that it is strongly philopatric
, meaning it regularly returns to the same place.