Philopoemen


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Philopoemen

(fĭləpē`mən), c.252–183 B.C., Greek statesman and general, b. Megalopolis. For years he fought as a mercenary in Crete. In 209 he became commander of the Achaean cavalry, with which he defeated the Aetolians and Eleans. He next became (208) general of the Achaean LeagueAchaean League
, confederation of cities on the Gulf of Corinth. The First Achaean League, about which little is known, was formed presumably before the 5th cent. B.C. and lasted through the 4th cent. B.C. Its purpose was mutual protection against pirates.
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. He defeated Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta, at Mantinea. Nabis, successor of Machanidas, was driven out of Messene and was defeated (201–200) in Laconia by Philopoemen. When Nabis was assassinated, the Spartans were incorporated (192) into the Achaean League, but revolted and were again conquered (188) by Philopoemen. He was captured and poisoned by Messenian rebels. Philopoemen was glorified by his compatriot, the historian PolybiusPolybius
, 203? B.C.–c.120 B.C., Greek historian, b. Megalopolis. As one of the leaders of the Achaean League and a friend of Philopoemen, he was influential in Greek politics.
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Philopoemen

 

Born 253 B.C.; died 183 B.C. Greek general. Hipparch (cavalry commander) of the Achaean League in 209 and 208 and the league’s strategus eight different times, beginning in 207.

Philopoemen, having carried out a number of military reforms, achieved important victories over Sparta, including a battle at Mantinea in 206 and the liberation of Messene from the tyrant Nabis in 204–203. In 193 he forced most of the Peloponnesian city-states to join the Achaean League, and in 192 he compelled Sparta to join as well. Philopoemen stubbornly opposed Rome and fought for the independence of Greece, thus earning the epithet “the last Hellene.”

REFERENCES

Errington, R. M. Philopoemen. Oxford, 1969.
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References in classic literature ?
Philopoemen,[*] Prince of the Achaeans, among other praises which writers have bestowed on him, is commended because in time of peace he never had anything in his mind but the rules of war; and when he was in the country with friends, he often stopped and reasoned with them: "If the enemy should be upon that hill, and we should find ourselves here with our army, with whom would be the advantage?
[*] Philopoemen, "the last of the Greeks," born 252 B.C., died 183 B.C.
When Lacedaemon was brought into the league by Philopoemen, it was attended with an abolition of the institutions and laws of Lycurgus, and an adoption of those of the Achaeans.
of California P., 1998, 97-8, following Malcolm Errington, Philopoemen, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1969, 238-40, who demonstrated Pausanias used Plutarch.
In the beginning, the Assembly met at Aigion, but later on, General Philopoemen established a system under which the Assembly periodically met also in other member city-states like Argos.
Il recut une solide education militaire dans sa jeunesse aupres du stratege acheen Philopoemen. Il merite notre attention, d'abord en tant que soldat du fait qu'il exerca la fonction d'hipparque au moment de la troisieme guerre de Macedoine (172-168) qui se termina par la defaite a Pydna en 168 du roi macedonien Persee devant le general romain Paul Emile.
One important result of his macro-analysis is to establish a meaningful parallel in Polybius's narrative between the careers of Rome and the Achaeans, represented in the early books of the Histories as paradigms of "Hellenic" virtue (chapter four), then as degenerating into "barbarism" (chapter five) in the fragmented later books; at the micro-level, the moral degeneration of the Roman and Achaean collectives is marked by contrast with the older virtue of the Roman Scipio Africanus and the Achaean Philopoemen, both men "throwbacks to a pristine past" (p.
From Plutarch's lives he combined Philopoemen's attraction to the actions of military men with the "nocturnal and fraudulent expeditions" of Aratus, who entirely lacked Philopoemen's warlike temper.(23) A prince who combines parts of Philopoemen and Aratus, of Xenophon's Cyrus and Livy's Romans, may be pictured only in the same way that we picture a centaur (cf.
There are two wounded Adonises, a Prometheus sprawled on a rock with an eagle pecking his liver, two wounded Philoctetes with bow and arrow, a Philopoemen removing a spear from his thigh in bronze and numerous other bronze gladiators wielding swords.
358: 'to describe Plutarch's life as "the most obvious source" betrays a perspective too much influenced by the isolated survival of a large corpus of Plutarchan biographies - and by the frustrating fact that it does not include Epaminondas.' There is in fact little evidence to support the notion that Pausanias knew Plutarch's work at all, with the possible exception of the life of Philopoemen, on which see H.
The last independent ruler of Sparta, Nabis was an able politician and possessed some skill as a commander, although he was no match for Philopoemen; the hideous reputation he enjoys among most ancient historians (including Polybius) is largely hostile propaganda.
He is discovered to be Philopoemen, lost son of Dionysophanes.