Phlebography


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phlebography

[flə′bäg·rə·fē]
(medicine)
X-ray photography of a vein or veins following intravenous injection of a radiopaque substance.
Recording of venous pulsations.

Phlebography

 

(1) A method of roentgenographic examination of veins by injection of a contrast medium. Phlebography is used to diagnose varicose veins and other diseases.

(2) Venous sphygmography, a method of studying blood circulation in man and animals by means of graphic registration of the venous pulse, that is, the pulsations of venous walls. The curves obtained are called phlebograms. The external jugular vein is generally used, and the curves are registered on paper, usually by means of a mirror venous sphygmograph. Several types of waves are observed, reflecting the different stages of blood circulation: the cessation of the blood flow from the venae cavae into the right atrium when the atrium contracts, the transmission of pulsation of the carotid artery to the adjacent jugular vein during ventricular systole, and the filling of the right ventricle and large veins with blood during ventricular diastole.

Phlebography is useful in measuring the duration of cardiac phases and the tonus of the right atrium. It is used as a diagnostic tool in such disorders as heart disease and elevated pressure in pulmonary circulation.

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Based on findings from lower-extremity phlebography, the incidence of phlebitis following injection of nonionic, low-osmolar agents is lower than for ionic, high-osmolar agents.
Considered that on the phlebography the presence of communications between spermatic vein and visceral veins is reported in about 11% of patients,[sup.8] a complete angiographic study may represent a safer, if not compulsory, approach to guide the procedure, before antegrade sclerotherapy.
However, as previously reported by Fulcoli and colleagues,[sup.7] performing a phlebography is not devoid of possible false negative findings.
In the present experience, on the phlebography, internal spermatic vein was correctly visualized and there was no evidence of such anastomosis.
We found a complete angiographic study, mainly an ante-grade phlebography, may represent a safer approach to guide the procedure before antegrade sclerotherapy.
The underlying cause for venous ulcers was classified using Doppler ultrasound, duplex scanning, and light reflex rheography or phlebography. APC resistance was detected in 36% of patients with postthrombotic leg ulcers and 6% of patients with ulcers caused by primary varicosis.
The diagnosis of DVT was confirmed by compression ultrasonography, contrast phlebography, platelet scintigraphy using anterior-posterior and posterior-anterior radiologic views.
After 8-12 weeks of treatment, sonography and phlebography were performed on 75 patients.
Corrales et al observed a high duplication rate of 49% by phlebography. (6) Donnelly et al, (7) through anatomical dissection found a duplication rate of 9%.
The relevance of phlebography in the diagnostics and treatment of deep phlebothromboses of the leg.
(5.) Arseni C, Mihailescu N, Simonescu M, Trung L X: Orbital phlebography. ActaNeurochir(Wien) 1964; 12:521-542.
(8.) McNulty JG: Phlebography of the orbital venous system and the cavernous sinus.