His words recall the spiritual topography of Hades, the region defined by the rivers of dread--Styx, Acheron, Cocytus, and Phlegethon
. Such care for sacred geographies, part of a venerable tradition of literary representation from the classics to Dante's Divine Comedy, (49) constitutes the ideological core of the play and produces the gruesome plot of Tamora and Aaron's "reformation." Early on, Tamora challenges Rome's sacred geography by telling Titus that her "sons slaughtered in the streets" will spiritually and materially pollute the space he venerates most: "Andronicus, stain not thy tomb with blood.
In Greek mythology five rivers of the underworld are mentioned: Acheron, Cocytus, Lethe, Phlegethon
(or Pyriphlegethon) and which other?
The next section begins with quotation from Dante's Inferno describing Phlegethon
, a river of boiling blood in the Seventh Circle of Hell, in which the bodies of those who committed crimes of violence are immersed.
di, quibus imperium est animarum, umbraeque silentes et Chaos et Phlegethon
, loca nocte tacentia late, sit mihi fas audita loqui, sit numine vestro pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas.
9 Where does the fiery Phlegethon
flow into the Acheron?
Even though this shows that Dickens has consciously worked an infernal motif into his fantasia of heat and languor, the allusion to Phlegethon
('fiery river') goes unremarked, and so does the interesting conflation of Styx and Lethe.
He joined ranks with the other members of the Davis avant-garde when he produced Phlegethon
, a composition for burning pieces of Handi-Wrap attached to wire coat hangers.
Flying dragons, lightning, fearful thunderclaps, Singe these fair plains, and make them seem as black As is the island where the Furies mask, Compassed with Lethe, Styx, and Phlegethon
The five rivers of Hell are the Styx, Acheron, Cocytus, Phlegethon
, and Lethe.
Joining the Queen and Duke on the journey were descendants of Daniel Gooch, who drove the original locomotive - Phlegethon
- and Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the celebrated engineer who designed the Great Western Railway line and assisted Mr Gooch during the 1842 journey.
In structure, it falls into two parts--Virgil and Dante encountering the Minotaur, and the centaurs, the latter being the guardians of Phlegethon
, the river of blood.