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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(timothy), a genus of annual and perennial grasses of the family Gramineae. The inflorescence is a dense, cylindrical, spikelike panicle. The spikelets are small and one-flowered, and the fruit is an elongate-oval caryopsis. The plants usually form loose bushes. There are more than 15 species of timothy, distributed in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Of the 11 cosmopolitan species found in the USSR, five are annuals. Four species are cultivated as feed crops.

The most important species raised for feed is P. pratense, a winter-hardy perennial reaching 140 cm in height and having long, narrow (3–10 mm across), slightly rough leaves. The plant grows mainly on floodplains in the European USSR, the Caucasus, Kazakhstan, and Western and Eastern Siberia. It was first cultivated in Russia in the 18th century; its cultivation subsequently spread to other European countries, North America, and Australia.

P. pratense is cultivated as a hay and pasture plant in the forest zone and in forest-steppe and mountain regions. Growth begins in early spring but is slow. The grass is one of the most important components of hay and pasture mixtures. It is sown mainly with red clover. In field crop rotations, with a companion crop of grain, P. pratense is sown at a rate of 4–6 kg/ha. In meadow pastures the sowing rate is 6–8 kg/ha; in pure plantings the rate is about 12 kg/ha.

Full development is attained in the second or third year. The plant yields abundantly for four or five years on dry valleys and for ten to 15 years on floodplains; the grass is mown one or, less commonly, two times each year. The plant is harvested for hay during the heading stage; the yield of hay is 30–65 quintals/ha. One hundred kg of green mass contains 20–25 feed units and 1.5–1.7 kg of digestible protein. The grass is eaten by all farm animals.

The perennial species P. phleoides, which measures 35–45 cm in height (rarely as much as 80 cm), is distributed in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the European USSR, in the mountain regions of the Caucasus, and in Western and Eastern Siberia and Middle Asia. The perennial P. alpinum, which is 15–20 cm tall (rarely as much as 50 cm) and has an abundance of soft radical leaves, is an indispensable component of alpine and subalpine pastures in Middle Asia, the Altai, and the northern parts of the European USSR. P. paniculatum, an annual reaching 50 cm in height, grows mainly in the Crimea, the Caucasus, and Middle Asia; it occurs on somewhat solonetzic sierozems in valleys, in wastelands, and on rocky slopes. The plant begins its vegetative period in early spring and dries up by the onset of summer. All three of the above-mentioned species are eaten by horses, cattle, and sheep; P. alpinum is also eaten by deer.


Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Travianistye rasteniia SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Almost all of the single-species patterns showed significant aggregation (21 of 24 patterns), and values of [Mathematical Expression Omitted] differed consistently between species across the six quadrats, with means [+ or -] 1 SE for Phleum, Cerastium, Saxifraga, and Valerianella of 1.08 [+ or -] 0.04, 1.43 [+ or -] 0.04, 2.42 [+ or -] 0.33, and 3.52 [+ or -] 0.92, respectively.
Phleum pratense L.; Timothy Grass; Fields; Frequent; (* #); C = 0; BSUH 12606.
Relations entre les caracteres morphologiques et la qualite chez la fleole des pres (Phleum pratense L.).
The effect of temperature and photoperiod on inflorescence development in strains of timothy (Phleum spp.).
Some included remnants of the tallgrass vegetation they replaced, but all were dominated by exotic species such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and a series of cool-season pasture grasses, including Bromus inermis, Festuca pratensis, Dactylis glomerata and Phleum pratense.
arundinacea, +Narcissus longispathus, Orchis coriophora, Peucedanum hispanicum, Phleum pratense subsp.
saure Parodi) (Burton, 1974, 1982), perennial ryegrass (Hayward and Vivero, 1984), and digestible dry matter yield of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) (Surprenant et al., 1990), when measured in space-planted evaluations.
About 75% of the management units had been seeded to nonnative cool-season grasses [redtop bentgrass (Agrostis alba), timothy (Phleum pratense), smooth brome (Bromus inermis), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) and bluegrass (Poa compressa, P pratensis.)].
Using an artificial community consisting of Trifolium repens and Poa pratensis as target species and Phleum pratense and Agrostis tenuis as background species, three types of plant-plant interactions were examined: invasions, competition for space, and neighborhood effects.
In the following text, the term "grasses" refers to perennial forage grasses commonly planted in Illinois, including timothy (Phleum pratense), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis).
canadensis, Lysimachia ciliata, Monarda clinopodia, Oenothera biennis, Pastinaca sativa, Phleum pratense, Polygonatum biflorum, P.
Plantings included orchardgrass and alfalfa in Indiana; smooth brome with either alfalfa or yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) in Nebraska; either orchardgrass and Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza stipulacea), or timothy (Phleum pratense) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in Missouri; and either timothy, orchardgrass, alfalfa and white sweet clover (Melilotus alba), or orchardgrass and alfalfa in Michigan.