Phocis(redirected from Phocian)
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Phocis(fō`sĭs), ancient region of central Greece. It included Delphi, Mt. Parnassus, and Elatea; Boeotia (now Voiotía) was on the east, and the Gulf of Corinth was on the south. After the First Sacred War of c.590 B.C. ("sacred" because it involved the oracle of Delphi), Phocis lost control of Delphi to a council of states. With Athenian help Phocis regained (457 B.C.) hold of Delphi, thus precipitating the Second Sacred War. Early in the next century Phocis passed under Theban control. The Third Sacred War (355–346 B.C.) began with Phocis trying to reestablish itself and ended with the victory of Philip IIPhilip II,
382–336 B.C., king of Macedon (359–336 B.C.), son of Amyntas II. While a hostage in Thebes (367–364), he gained much knowledge of Greece and its people.
..... Click the link for more information. of Macedon, who thereby became arbiter of Greece.
a district in central Greece.
At least 22 cities are known to have existed on Phocian territory in antiquity. Of these, the most famous were Delphi and Elatea. The Panhellenic sanctuary of Apollo and the oracle of Delphi were located in Phocis. This circumstance, along with the region’s economically and strategically advantageous location, involved the Phocians in the struggles of the tribes and city-states of ancient Greece. Little is known of the internal history of Phocis prior to the fourth century B.C. The Phocians belonged to the Delphic-Pylaean amphictyony and took part in a number of Sacred Wars.
In modern Greece Phocis (Fokis) is a nome; it includes part of the territory of the ancient district.