Phocis

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Phocis

(fō`sĭs), ancient region of central Greece. It included Delphi, Mt. Parnassus, and Elatea; Boeotia (now Voiotía) was on the east, and the Gulf of Corinth was on the south. After the First Sacred War of c.590 B.C. ("sacred" because it involved the oracle of Delphi), Phocis lost control of Delphi to a council of states. With Athenian help Phocis regained (457 B.C.) hold of Delphi, thus precipitating the Second Sacred War. Early in the next century Phocis passed under Theban control. The Third Sacred War (355–346 B.C.) began with Phocis trying to reestablish itself and ended with the victory of Philip IIPhilip II,
382–336 B.C., king of Macedon (359–336 B.C.), son of Amyntas II. While a hostage in Thebes (367–364), he gained much knowledge of Greece and its people.
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 of Macedon, who thereby became arbiter of Greece.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Phocis

 

a district in central Greece.

At least 22 cities are known to have existed on Phocian territory in antiquity. Of these, the most famous were Delphi and Elatea. The Panhellenic sanctuary of Apollo and the oracle of Delphi were located in Phocis. This circumstance, along with the region’s economically and strategically advantageous location, involved the Phocians in the struggles of the tribes and city-states of ancient Greece. Little is known of the internal history of Phocis prior to the fourth century B.C. The Phocians belonged to the Delphic-Pylaean amphictyony and took part in a number of Sacred Wars.

In modern Greece Phocis (Fokis) is a nome; it includes part of the territory of the ancient district.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Phocis

an ancient district of central Greece, on the Gulf of Corinth: site of the Delphic oracle
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Phocian was an Athenian general and politician, greatly admired for his honesty and virtue.
On the human plane, his version credits the Phocians with heroic exploits in the actual defense of the sanctuary, while the Aetolian forces were occupied with Acichorius' contingent, which had left Heraclea to join forces with Brennus at Delphi.(16) The epiphany of Artemis and Athena would incorporate two Aetolian deities into the Delphic legend and may have served as part of a variant account to counter a tradition in which Apollo and the Phocians were the saviors of the sanctuary.(17)
554ff., Orestes anticipates the circumstances in which he will murder Aegisthus: he will infiltrate the palace disguised as a Phocian, find Aegisthus seated on the throne he has usurped, and strike him down.
(4)For the Phocian appeal of 395 and the Achean appeal of 389, v.i.
Harmocydes similarly urges the Phocians to battle not with the rhetoric of freedom but with a steely admonition to courage at the edge of the abyss:
According to him (10.8.1-5) the Ainians, together with the Ionians, Dolopes, Thessalians, Magnesians, Malians, Phthiotians, Dorians, Phocians and Locrians who border on Phocis, had constituted the original League.
At Plataea, the Greek allies of Persia who were pitted against the Athenians included the Boeotians, Locrians, Thessalians, Phocians, and the Macedonians.
He was of an age to remember the temple-robbery of Delphi by the Phocians and their mercenaries, and the fact that Philip had had 3,000 of them executed when prisoners of war `as temple-robbers' (Diod.
He put up so formidable a fight that, as Plutarch relates, a soldier who later dared to engage him in single combat was on this account granted heroic honours by the Phocians.
3.10.3-3.10.5: On the Eurypontid side, Pausanias moves from the death of Agesilaos in 360 to the episode of Archidamos with the Phocians in 357.
membership and votes on the Council of the Delphic Amphictyony were transferred from 'Phocians' to ' Macedones' (Paus.
The probable explanation is that after the defeat of Philip by Onomarchus in 353 some cities deserted from the Thessalian League, of which Philip was the elected archon, and joined the side of the Phocians and Pherae; and then that, when the decisive victory was won on the Crocus Field and the tyrants of Pherae left Thessaly in 352, some city-states were punished for sacrilege as well as for treachery.(3) In our passage Philip was in Thessaly 'seizing gold mines' (auraria sc.