Prevalence of phonological disorders
and phonological processes in typical and atypical phonological development.
Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders
: an electrophysiological study.
Studies have evaluated phonological disorder
and performance in phonological awareness tasks [19-21].
To date, there is limited evidence that phonological disorders
alone, independent of a language disorder, are associated with phonological awareness skills.
Among the speech alterations, there are phonetic and phonological disorders
. Phonetic disorders feature articulatory difficulties, ultimately caused by structural alterations, bone as well as muscle-related, thus bringing about dysfunctions in the phono-articulatory organs, impairing the speech sound production, and the anterior lisp is an example.
In relation to the mean indices (calculated by the average of the three applied tests) obtained individually by the children, the degrees of phonological disorders
were classified [6,7] in the evaluation and in the reevaluation.
In one study, production difficulties with vowels were found in at least half of the children with phonological disorders
(Pollock & Keiser, 1990), and in another study, a greater number of vowel errors correlated with the severity of phonological disorders
(Gibson & Beck, 2002).
are characterized by the substitution, omission or distortion of speech sounds in the absence of organic conditions .
These works are extremely important to the clinical practice of speech therapists, as they can help in the diagnosis of phonological disorders
and other related diseases, in addition to guiding the sequence of target sounds to be used in therapy.
Failing to account for these dialect features in phonological assessment may either shift the diagnosis from one of "typically developing" to one of "phonological disorder
" or alter the severity category (e.g., from mild to severe phonological disorder
) for children who are considered phonologically disordered.
The association between phonological disorder
and difficulties in phonemic discrimination and auditory processing highlights that these two abilities should be considered in speech therapy.