Photographic Effects

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Photographic Effects


various phenomena that disrupt the single-value relationship between the exposure H of a photographic material and the optical density D obtained after exposure of the material. Several dozen photographic effects are known. The following have the greatest theoretical and practical importance.

Solarization is an image reversal observed at large values of H; a second reversal involves the transition to an increase in D with an increase in H at values of H higher than necessary for solarization (see Figure 1 in SENSITOMETRY). Both effects are encountered in practice only at very high overexposures, but they are sometimes deliberately used to obtain specific artistic effects.

The Schwarzschild effect (seeRECIPROCITY LAW FAILURE) strongly influences the results of photographing both very weakly luminous subjects, such as stars, and very strongly luminous subjects, such as explosions.

The intermittency effect refers to the dependence of all parameters of the characteristic curve, including the values of D at a given value H, on whether exposure is the result of continuous illumination or is broken up into n partial exposures H1, H2, . . ., Hn (n ≥ 2) separated by intervals of no illumination (provided H1 + H2 + … + Hn = H = const). The D depends not only on the division of one total exposure into a number of partial exposures, but also on the method of division—the number and duration of exposures and the frequency of succession. This phenomenon occurs in practice when periodic processes are photographed, such as spark discharge, or when a light flux is attenuated by means of a rotating disk with slits.

Double exposure effects are observed when two exposures by light at different levels of illumination or by different types of radiation produce a total value D that is greater than the sum of D1 + D2 in the blackenings from each exposure individually. If the first exposure alone does not produce blackening (D1 = 0) and its effect only increases sensitivity to the subsequent exposure, the effect is called hypersensitization by means of preliminary exposure. If the second exposure by itself does not produce blackening (D2 = 0) but only intensifies the effect of the first exposure, the effect is called latent image intensification, or latensification, by exposure to light. Such effects are used in photographing faintly luminous objects.

Temperature effects involve the dependence of D on temperature during exposure at a given value of H, as well as the varying nature of this dependence under various conditions of illumination E. There is a monotonic increase of D with a decrease in temperature at low values of E and with an increase in temperature at high values of E. There is also a complex nonmonotonic change in D with changes in temperature at moderate values of E; the latter effect is typical in most cases of practical photography. Such phenomena can substantially affect photographic results, although they are not always taken into account.

The Herschel effect refers to the partial or complete destruction of a latent photographic image by subsequent exposure with red light or radiation at longer wavelengths. It is an important technique in studying the latent image and the mechanism of its formation.

The latent image may gradually deteriorate during the time between exposure and development. The effect is usually not intentionally promoted and is the result of the thermal or chemical action (or both) of the surrounding medium. As a result of such aging and deterioration, development produces reduced values of D that do not correspond to the actual value of H. Such deterioration affects photographic results if development is postponed for a long time, for example, on expeditions (especially in a hot, humid climate).

The Sabattier effect refers to the complete or partial reversal of an image (a decrease in D with an increase in H at all values or only at small values of H) as a result of uniform exposure of a developed, nonfixed photographic material and subsequent additional development. The phenomenon, which may be deliberately evoked as a means of artistic expression, is an effective technique for isolating regions on the photograph where there are equal values of D.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
HUAWEI P30 lite 48MP Edition's triple-camera system covers the full zoom range, supporting various photographic effects. The ultra-wide lens plus the dual-camera module don't just let users capture the world with crisp clarity, but its wide perspective lends itself to recording exciting moments in everyday life.
Among the distinctive photographic effects of flash: bleaching of lighter objects, heightened contrast between illuminated foreground and obscure background, and the intrusion of the flash itself, either through its direct inclusion in the image, or in bouncing off reflective surfaces.
net Instagram is a fantastic place to experiment with photographic effects and share snapshots of the world around you.
The camera settings entice aspiring photographers to shoot like a pro with the P9's professional photographic effects and unique functions, including a choice of film modes, wide aperture effect, monochrome mode professional mode, and wide aperture effect.
The new Remix case from Izzi incorporates four interchangeable lenses-- including a 170-degree fisheye, wide angle, 2x zoom and 13x macro--that let you create a variety of photographic effects. Best of all, the case is surprisingly rugged (there's also a plastic under-layer to keep your phone safe), so you don't have to worry about damaging your new accessory while snapping a precarious selfie.
The camera also supports a variety of features that make photography convenient and fun, such as Art Camera mode, which allows users to enjoy diverse photographic effects, and high dynamic range (HDR) compositing, which is found on digital cameras.
McAleer didn't resort to computer-generated imagery for his fantasy which was shot at the former Swan Hunter shipyard in Wallsend using miniature sets and conventional photographic effects.
The application includes advanced photographic effects such as: HDR, Glow, Black and White, Vintage, Collage, and Sepia.
"It's really a drag," said Trumbull, an award-winning photographic effects expert who has worked on dozens of movies including "2001: A Space Odyssey" and "Blade Runner."
This article examines Niccolai's extraordinary but little-studied novel, investigating its representation of a photographic gaze and its use of photographic effects. I argue that the novel represents an important and underestimated summary of a number of themes that were to be of the greatest importance in Niccolai's later work.
The 15 effects available in PhotoTools 2.5 Free range from reproducing classic photographic effects like Bleach Bypass and Cross Process, to reproducing film stock such as Kodachrome and Velvia and modern effects including automatic skin smoothing.

Full browser ?