Photographic Materials

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Photographic Materials


photosensitive materials used in still and motion-picture photography for the production of photographic images, as well as reagents for the chemical processing of such images and supplementary materials.

Photosensitive materials consist of a thin emulsion layer fixed to a backing or a layer without a backing used for the registration of charged high-energy particles. Depending on their chemical composition, such materials are divided into two groups: silver-bearing materials, in which various silver halides and their mixtures (primarily AgBr) serve as the photosensitive component, and silver-free materials, in which compounds of iron and chromium, diazo compounds, and others are used. Silver-free materials are characterized by extremely low photographic sensitivity and are used only for the production of positives, mainly in diazo copying. Depending on the type of backing to which the photosensitive emulsion layer is fixed, photosensitive materials are classified as photographic paper (glossy, matte, and other types), photographic plates (silica or organic glass), and films (cellulose triacetate or various synthetic polymer films).

Photographic reagents are used to convert a latent photographic image into a visible image or to improve the quality of a visible image; photographic developers, fixers, and tanning agents are used for these purposes. Reducers and intensifiers may be used to improve the quality of the image during the processing of photosensitive photographic materials. The application of certain inorganic acids and their salts makes it possible to give the necessary monotone color to positives. Certain operations, such as the intensification and toning of black-and-white images, involve the use of bleaching agents.

Supplementary photographic materials include special light-proof and moistureproof paper for packing photographic materials; adhesives for gluing films and pasting photographic paper onto various materials; and lacquer coatings for protecting positives on ceramics or metals from harmful atmospheric effects.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The i1Photo Pro3 Plus builds on the success of the i1 Family and removes the variability to create accurate ICC profiles on a broader range of photographic materials." - Liz Quinlisk, Photo and Video Business Unit Manager, X-Rite Incorporated
Another important lab is the Laboratory for Scientific Restoration of Photos (LSRP) which is the base of scientific and technical research, storage, and restoration of photographic materials of the museum.
Earlier on Friday, the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) unveiled photographic materials from the launches, adding that North Korean leader Kim Jong-un personally ordered the start of exercises with the use of long-range missiles to assess the ability of the country's defense forces for rapid response.
While we have waited long for these bells to come home, it should not be seen as an end, but as a beginning of renewed research in that contentious part of Philippine history once known as the 'Philippine Insurrection.' It is not well-known that in 1999, the US Library of Congress catalogue was revised to reflect reference, archival and photographic materials in their Philippine History collection under the heading 'Philippine-American War, 1899-1902.' What may seem like a trivial bibliographic change is relevant to the way we understand that conflict today.
"But I emphasise that even the question of her visiting colleagues and the photographic materials was based only on rumour gathered, circulating in the medical school at the time of her death.
The top 10 Asean export products to Canada were electrical and electronic equipment, $1.5 billion, 6.9 percent; articles of apparels, $892 million, 4 percent; nuclear reactors or boilers, $599 million, 2.7 percent; articles of apparel or clothing (excluding knitted), $425 million, 1.9 percent; rubber, $349 million, 1.5 percent; footwear, gaiters and the like, $334 million, 1.5 percent; meat of fish or crustaceans, $309 million, 1.4 percent; furniture, $275 million, 1.1 percent; fish or crustaceans, $244 million, 1.1 percent; and optical or photographic materials, $168 million, 0.8 percent.
An archive initially composed of the by-products of artists' research and projects, the Arab Image Foundation (AIF) was established in Lebanon in 1997 by Fouad Elkoury, Samer Mohdad, Walid Raad, and Akram Zaatari, and has grown to include a staggering number and variety of photographic materials and subjects from the Middle East, North Africa, and the Arab diaspora.
He explains: "In addition to the photographic materials received, a series of 11 studio registers were also included, detailing the names and titles of all the individuals photographed by Hardman during the 40 years of his commercial practice.
The prices such cameras fetch are a barometer of the growing interest for early photographic materials.
The state-of-the-art storage facilities accommodate a wide array of collections, such as paintings, drawings on paper and on canvas, manuscripts, photographic materials, sculptures, traditional objects.

Full browser ?