Determination of sunscreen UVA photoprotection
and vitamin D status: A study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels.
compliance may be suboptimal in African-Americans and Hispanics because they are less concerned about sunburn and skin cancer.
, solar exposure, and vitamin D in active and sedentary eutrophic adolescents.
Nevertheless, compare to control plant, the UVR showed a substantial effect on antioxidant and photoprotection
properties in vitro plants.
We collected 1.5 mL of blood via peripheral venipuncture, which was packed in vials with photoprotection
and transferred under refrigeration to the clinical laboratory for centrifugation and analysis.
Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are the inorganic substances most utilized for photoprotection
. They present excellent protection against UV radiation and their advantage is that they are chemically inert and hence do not cause allergic sensitization.
(13) Another study, published in the Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, revealed that a topical combination of vitamins C and E achieved significant photoprotection
of the skin.
Patients who use potentially photosensitive drugs and treatments on long term basis should be warned of the possibility of these side effects on their skin, and should be advised to avoid direct exposure to sunlight, as well as to use appropriate photoprotection
. In order to avoid photosensitive reactions, it is essential to know the photosensitizing properties of such drugs and to advise the patients.
The first step in order to prevent acute and chronic damage development by UV-radiation is photoprotection
, which can be understood as a group of measures directed to reduce exposure; this can be accomplished with a set of strategies that involve photoeducation, topical photoprotection
(sunscreens), oral photoprotection
by devices (clothes, hats, etc.) (15).
 Sun avoidance and photoprotection
are also recommended.
Still, dermatological, toxicological, and environmental implications of currently available UV filters have opened up the door for new concepts in photoprotection
with regard to the use of plant extracts [6-9].