Phraseological Unit

Phraseological Unit

 

(also called idiom), a word group with a fixed lexical composition and grammatical structure; its meaning, which is familiar to native speakers of the given language, is generally figurative and cannot be derived from the meanings of the phraseological unit’s component parts. The meanings of phraseological units are the result of the given language’s historical development.

There are several types of phraseological units, as follows. In phraseological concretions the literal and figurative meanings are totally unrelated, as in tochit’ liasy (“to whittle a piece of linden wood”; figuratively, “to chatter”) or sobaku s”est’ (“to know inside out”; literally, “to eat a dog”). Other phraseological units have a meaning that is derived from the meaning of the component parts, as in plyt’ po techeniiu (“to flow with the current”). Phraseological collocations include a word or words with a meaning that is both literal and figurative, as in glubokaia tishina (“profound silence”). Another type of phraseological unit is the idiomatic expression, a word group whose structure and meaning are fixed.

Other classifications of phraseological units acccording to type exist as well. They include classifications based on the restrictions in the selection of variable structural elements, those based on the fixed or variable composition of the word components, and those based on the degree to which the phraseological unit’s structure and components are fixed. The aggregate of phraseological units differing in terms of meaning and structure constitutes a language’s stock of idioms.

References in periodicals archive ?
The important question of bilingual lexicography: whether to give a verbatim translation of a source language (SL) phraseological unit or always aim at a target language (TL) phraseological unit of the same kind as the SL item, does not have an agreed upon answer.
1) For a recent extensive coverage of the treatment of phraseological units in lexicography, see Mellado Blanco (2009).
In this phraseological unit, a limited choice of collocates is possible for the verb.
But it does seem feasible to point out some of the postulated core features of collocations and phraseological units in order to explain the effect of the syntagmatic lexical force as it is suggested here.
Phraseological units are here understood as two or more lexical items in syntactic relation with one another.
16) Secondly, phraseological units may be pragmatically non-compositional: They may be as long as whole sentences, such as the proverb One swallow does not make a summer.
What is important for our approach is that both collocations and phraseological units possess a high degree of syntagmatic force which leads to the co-selection of lexical items.
Single words have the lowest degree of idiomaticity while pure phraseological units have the highest.
Phraseological Units in Discourse: Towards Applied Linguistics.
Scholars of language, literature, translation, and related fields present 15 studies on such topics as the coining of Italian phraseological units through the translation of analogous English phrases, translating America in Italian fiction of the 1990s, translating desire in Ovid and three Romantic poems, the impact of modern translations for the stage on perceptions of ancient Greek drama, and the textual editor as translator.
Then they cover the corpus-based analysis of phraseological units, phraseology across languages and cultures, and phraseology in lexicography and natural language processing.
It features terms, phraseological units, and institutional titles covering a broad variety of areas, such as macroeconomics, money and banking, public finance, taxation, balance of payments, statistics, accounting, and economic development.